GUM (gummi) — the substances of the carbohydrate nature which are emitted at mechanical or pathological (caused by bacteria or mushrooms) damage of plants.
In medical practice To. apply in the form of mucous solutions as the enveloping means to reduction of the irritation caused by nek-ry pharmaceuticals or to delay of absorption of drugs in intestines, and also as emulsifiers at production of oil emulsions.
To. are heteropolysaccharide-mi and usually represent neutral salts (calcic, magnesian, potassium) high-molecular to - the t consisting of the remains of pentoses, methyl pentoses, hexoses and various uranium to - the t giving them acid properties. To. — vitreous, are more often the translucent firm brittle pieces of yellow or brown color. To. bulk up or are completely dissolved in water, forming colloid solutions; in organic solvents (alcohol, ether, gasoline) are insoluble.
On chemical structure To. divide on arabinovy, tserazinovy and bassorinovy. In medical practice apply arabinovy and bassorinovy K.
Arabinovye K. is represented by arabinkaliyevy, calcic and magnesian salts arabinovy to - you. The arabic gum, or arabic gum (Gummi arabicum, G. acaciae) which is emitted from cuts of bark, a trunk and branches Senegalese concerns to them (Acacia Senegal Wild.) and other types of an acacia growing in Africa.
Bassorinovye K. (a bassor, a sausage mincer, tragacanth gum, etc.) receive from different types of Astragalus growing in Iran and the Turkmen SSR. Apricot gum (Gummi armeniaciae, GFH) for the medical purposes is received from branches of the cultivated or wild-growing apricot (Armeniaca vulgaris Lam.), this. rose family (Rosaceae).
Along with To. in plants gum-pitches (the gamboge gum applied earlier as laxative) and oil-gum-pitch from which are most known an azafetida, myrrh and ammoniak are formed. See also the Enveloping means .
K. S. Shadursky.