From Big Medical Encyclopedia

GROUP OF FIRST AID (OPM) — the mobile formation of health service of civil protection intended for rendering the first medical assistance to affected population in the centers of defeat and regions of the natural disasters, and also for temporary placement struck and preparation them to their evacuation in medical institutions of a country zone. OPM can be attracted for holding anti-epidemic, sanitary and hygienic and other actions of civil protection.

OPM is created by bodies of health care on base to lay down. - professional, city institution or the rural district is also one of the main formations health service of civil protection (see). The main objective of OPM is reception struck from the center and rendering with it first medical assistance (see). In addition, OPM carries out tasks of maintaining medical investigation (see) in the center of defeat, on the routes of the movement struck and directly around an arrangement of group, on providing with medical property a dignity. teams (see. Druzhina sanitary ), working at the site of group.

OPM as a stage of medical evacuation carries out actions for registration and temporary accommodation of the struck both patients and their medical sorting (see. Sorting medical ), partial to cleansing (see) and deactivations of their clothes and footwear with conducting radiation control, to rendering struck and the patient of the first medical assistance, temporary isolation inf. patients and patients with acute mental disorders, preparation struck and patients to evacuation in to lay down. institutions hospital base (see); are carried out also a dignity. - a gigabyte. and anti-epidemic actions, medical account is kept (see. the Account medical, in health service of GO ) and the reporting (see. the Reporting medical, in health service of GO ).

Into the center of mass defeat of OPM it is entered as a part of group of forces of GO and developed on the way of evacuation from the center to hospital base in the remained or partially remained buildings, in the absence of those — in tents. Work of group will be organized in close interaction with other formations and services GO operating in the center, and also with the medical divisions of military units participating in rescue operations.

The management, departments priyemo-sorting, operative-dressing, hospital, the partial sanitary cleaning and deactivation of clothes and footwear, evacuation struck laboratory, medical supply, and also economic are a part of OPM. Doctors, paramedics and nurses, hospital attendants and other personnel are a part of group. Besides, are a part of OPM two a dignity. teams, staff to-rykh it is used for work directly in OPM. The group has necessary medical and sanitarnokhozyaystvenny property, is equipped with mobile power plant, necessary motor transport and a tanker truck for water.

the Schematic diagram of expansion of group of first aid (shooters designated flow direction of struck).

Expansion funkts, divisions of OPM shall ensure its functioning in the conditions of emergence of various centers of defeat and mass receipt of struck (fig). It must be kept in mind that various age contingents struck can come to OPM, from to-rykh special attention children deserve.

In the priyemo-sorting room (PSR) reception, registration, medical sorting, rendering acute medical aid and temporary placement of the arriving struck is carried out. As a part of PSO the distribution post (DP), the sorting platform is developed, rooms for separate sorting tyazheloporazhenny and struck moderately severe (as a rule, nosilochny), an easily time-zhennykh (as a rule, walking), and also patients are equipped. On RP separate the persons needing partial sanitary cleaning, to-rykh send to department of partial sanitary cleaning; persons, suspicious on inf. diseases, send to the isolation center, persons with disturbances of mentality — to the psychoisolation center. Other struck and patients with RP come on the sorting platform and to sorting rooms where as a result of medical sorting they are distributed on the following groups: the medical aids needing rendering in the operating room, in a dressing room, in antishock, in temporary hospitalization (nontransportable); the medical aids needing only out-patient treatment, not demanding rendering in OPM. Results of medical sorting are designated by sorting brands.

The volume of the medical aid rendered in OPM generally includes: final stop of outside bleeding; antishock actions (warming, anesthesia, introduction of cardiovascular means, injection of blood substitutes, blood, etc.); prevention of a wound fever (use of antibiotics, tetanic anatoxin, antitetanic serum, etc.); fight against asphyxia and measures for its prevention (artificial respiration, tracheotomy and Tracheostomy, intubation, giving oxygen, etc.); bladder emptying; correction of bandages, sover-shestvovaniye of an immobilization; novocainic blockade; acute therapeutic management, etc.

The volume of medical aid in OPM is not constant and depends on a medical situation, first of all on number coming struck, possibilities of their evacuation to a country zone, qualifications of medical structure, etc. Children at equal indications shall receive the help first of all.

At a delay of evacuation struck from OPM the volume of medical aid in it extends — actions of the qualified medical aid join. In this case the group can be ^усилен crews of specialized medical aid.

Hospital department is intended for temporary placement and treatment nontransportable struck and patients, temporary isolation inf. patients and patients with frustration of mentality, and also for the persons expecting evacuation. In hospital department obstetric aid and care of newborns will be organized. The number of the places in hospital department and also which are its part of insulators is defined by quantity of arriving. All types of medical aid rendered in various divisions of OPM are documented.

Department of evacuation carries out delivery struck from the centers in OPM. It incorporates hospital attendants and drivers, it is given cars, to-rye are also used for transportation of medical and sanitary and other property from OPM in SD operating in the center.

At emergence of the center of chemical defeat of OPM it is developed on not - the infected territory from the windward side of the center. Character to lay down. actions is defined by a type of the applied OV (see. Toxic agents ). At emergence of the center of bacteriological (biological) defeat of OPM it is used for carrying out in the center of preventive actions (the emergency prevention, vaccination, active identification of patients, etc.), and also for temporary isolation inf. patients.

Bibliography: Health service of civil protection, under the editorship of F. G. Krotkov, M., 1975, bibliogr.; About sh ER ov S. A. and Zaostrovtsev I. T. The manual on health service of civil protection, M., 1973, bibliogr.; About-lyakov V. A. and Khromov B. M. The surgical help at stages of evacuation of health service of civil protection, M., 1969; The Guide to medical questions of antiradiation protection, under the editorship of A. I. Burnazyan, M., 1975; The Guide to traumatology for health service of civil protection, under the editorship of A. I. Kazmin, M., 1978; P y V. A. Organization's basses of health service of civil protection, M., 1970.

G.E. Kharlamov.'\