From Big Medical Encyclopedia

GRANULAR SPHERES — the macrophages of a brain englobing decomposition products of nervous tissue and transporting them to subarachnoid (subarachnoidal) and to perivascular spaces. Are for the first time described in 1841 Mr. G. Gluge; the term «granular spheres» is offered by F. Nissl. Role and value 3. highways in processes of a rassasyvaniye at disintegration of nervous tissue are characterized in F. Nissl, A. Alzheimer, L. Merzbacher's works.

Mikropreparat of tissue of a brain of the person who had an injury of a skull: in the center — the center of a necrosis with accumulation of granular spheres (are specified by shooters), coloring according to Van-Gizona, x 100; on the right — granular spheres (are specified by shooters) in the center of a necrosis at bigger increase (excentricly located kernels are visible), coloring across Nissl, x 200.

Concerning an origin 3. highways exist various points of view. Was considered that their main source is the microglia, to-ruyu carried to to reticuloendothelial system (see). Autoradio graphic and electronic microscopic examinations of a cerebral cortex in the field of an injury did not find cells of a neuroglia which can be considered a source of macrophages in experimental animals. According to these data, 80% 3. highway in substance of a brain forms from monocytes of blood or pericytes of small intracerebral vessels; cells of a neuroglia make 20% in formation of macrophages of a brain.

Process of emergence 3. by highway it is tracked in the field of the centers necrosis (see) a cerebral cortex at injuries. The first macrophages [the transformed monocytes across Kitamura (T. Kitamura)] are found around the center of a necrosis in 24 hours from the moment of an injury. Finally created 3. highways in a significant amount appear in the center of a necrosis in 48 hours from the moment of an injury and are observed within many months. Part 3. highway breaks up on site educations, others transfer fagotsitirovanny decomposition products to perivascular and subarachnoidal to spaces.

3. highways come to light at all methods of the combined colourings of cuts (hematoxylin-eosine, Van-Gizona's method, Mallori's method). During the coloring across Nissl (see. Nisslya method ) — these are large cells of a rounded or polygonal shape, with sotovidny cytoplasm; crossbeams of cells or lattices thin, kernels small, polygonal, are located excentricly (fig.). In cytoplasm 3. highways contain various products which are formed at disintegration of substance of a brain — the lipids, decomposition products of a myelin, various pigments (hemosiderin at hemorrhages, melanin at a necrosis in the field of black substance etc.) which are defined by histochemical methods of a research (see).

Except 3. highways, arising at disintegration of nervous tissue, are described lipidic inclusions in spherical cells of a cerebral cortex of newborns — so-called physiological 3. considered R. Virkhov Highway that their emergence testifies to encephalitis. According to many authors, these cells transport the elementary lipids.

See also Macrophages .

Bibliography: Koltover A. N., etc. Pathological anatomy of disturbances of cerebral circulation, M., 1975, bibliogr.; Smirnov L. I. A histopathology of a nervous system, the Management on nevrol., under the editorship of N. I. Grashchenkov, etc., t. 2, century 1, M. — L., 1941; Snesarev P. E. Theoretical fundamentals of pathological anatomy of mental diseases, M., 1950; Kitamura T. The origin of brain macrophages, Acta path, jap., v. 23, p. 11, 1973, bibliogr.; Maxwell D.S. K r u g e r L. Small blood vessels and the origin of phagocytes in the rat cerebral cortex following heavy particle irradiation, Exp. Neurol., v. 12, p. 33, 1965.

I. G. Lyudkovskaya.