GRAMICIDIN (Gramicidinum) — the polypeptide antibiotic produced you. brevis. By chemical synthesis it is received in 1956. It is water-insoluble, in to-takh and alkalis, it is easily alcohol-soluble.
It is most active concerning gram-positive microorganisms. The minimum overwhelming concentration for stafilokokk and streptococci fluctuates within 3 — 25 mkg/ml. Also pathogenic clostridiums, to a lesser extent — korinebakteriya, from gram-negative microorganisms — shigellas, proteas, colibacilli are sensitive to G.
Possesses bactericidal action; the mechanism of its antibacterial effect is connected with suppression of dehydrogenases of microorganisms. In vitro to G. quickly raises stability; in the course of use of drug of development of stability of activators it is not observed.
Treats toxics, parenterally it is not entered in view of a possibility of hemolitic reactions, at intake it is not soaked up.
G.'s clinic applies only locally owing to its high toxicity: at treatment of superficial suppurative processes, contaminated wounds, cankers of skin, erosion of a neck of uterus, and also in the form of rinsings and washings at inflammatory diseases of an ear and throat. Paste G., in addition to antibacterial action, renders contraceptive effect. Release G. in ampoules in the form of sterile spirit solution, and also in tubas. Before the use contents of ampoules are parted in water or isotonic solution of sodium chloride (2 ml of G. on 200 ml of solvent). It is stored in the dry, cool, protected from light place. See also Antibiotics .
Bibliography: Kozhybski T., Kovshyk-Gindifer 3. and Kurylovich V. Antibiotics, the lane with polsk., t. 2, page 949, Warsaw, 1969; Navashin S. M. and F ohms and N and I. P. Reference book on antibiotics, page 250, M., 1974.
S. M. Navashin.