From Big Medical Encyclopedia

GRAIN PRODUCTS receive from grain crops; they are the main in food of most of the population. Key products of processing of grain — grain (see) and flour (see). The last is a source of production of bread, and also the big range bakery, macaroni and confectionery. Grain, besides, is used for receiving starch, alcohol and other products.

In grain distinguish: the main nutritious part averaging 85% of its weight (endosperms); biologically active part making 1,5% (germ); the covers making apprx. 14%. Chemical grain composition depends on its look and culture conditions. Grain crops are divided into the following basic groups: breadstuff — wheat, rye, barley, corn, etc. — contain on average 65 — 67% of carbohydrates, 10 — 12% of proteins, apprx. 2% of fats, 13 — 14% of water; bean — peas, haricot, lentil — contain 23 — 25% of proteins, 50 — 55% of carbohydrates, apprx. 2% of fats, 13 — 14% of water; oily — sunflower, a peanut — contain 21 — 26% of proteins, 45 — 53% of fats, 5 — 10% of carbohydrates, 8 — 10% of water.

3. items in food of the person are the main source of phytalbumin and carbohydrates, and also vitamins of group B and mineral salts.

Decline in quality of grain and its damage during the receiving, storage and transportation can result from life activity of microorganisms (bacteria and mushrooms), a contamination of grain seeds of weed plants, and also as a result of development and life activity in grain of insects — granary wreckers (see. Wreckers of grain, grain products ).

Microflora of grain various. The major factors promoting development of microflora of grain at storage is increase in humidity and air temperature in storages. At the same time the life activity of microorganisms accompanied with activation of enzymes and biochemical, reactions with calorification becomes more active. Under the influence of life activity of mold mushrooms the cover of grain is broken, free access to an endosperm which is humidified and infected with various microorganisms opens.

The grain which is in propagation steps and development can be surprised golovnevy mushrooms which sharply reduce a grain yield of cultures and quality 3. item. The maintenance of a smut in flour is allowed not higher than 0,06%. The ergot most often strikes rye, is slightly more rare — wheat and barley. At the use of products from the grain crops infected with an ergot there is food poisoning called «ergotism» (see. Ergot ). Impurity of an ergot in flour is allowed to 0,05%. Seeds of some weed plants (a ryegrass of intoxicating, gray-haired trikhodesma, a heliotrope opushenno-fetal) at hit in food together with 3. items also cause food poisonings (see).

At evaluation test 3. the item is considered degree of a prevalence of grain by granary wreckers (by quantity of the live copies found in 1 kg of grain).

Disinsection of storages, the organization of the close check excluding a possibility of hit of insects wreckers in storage with consignments of the accepted grain, gamma irradiation of grain before loading in elevators, maintenance in storages of the established humidity and temperature belong to measures of fight against granary wreckers.

Bibliography: Hygiene of food, under the editorship of. K. S. Petrovsky, t. 1 — 2, M., 1971; Kretovich V. L. Biochemistry of grain and bread, in book: Technical biochemical, under the editorship of V. L. Kretovich, page 18, M., 1973, bibliogr.

V. A. Kudasheva.