From Big Medical Encyclopedia

GRAIN — the food stuff representing whole or shredded grains of a number of cultures. In structure To. proteins, fats, carbohydrates, cellulose, mineral substances, vitamins enter. Proteins K. belong to vegetable, scarce on a lysine and methionine. Carbohydrates are generally presented by starch.

Amount of cellulose in To. fluctuates depending on extent of removal of covers and polishing of grain.

Nutritional value To. depends not only on a species of grain crops, but also on features tekhnol, process during the receiving To. This process includes purification of grain of impurity, hydroheat treatment in proparivatel and dryers, sorting on fraction in size of grain, obrushivany, or a peeling (removal of covers), separation of shelusheny grains from pod, mealy and shredded particles. Besides, some To. subject to grinding and polish. As a result tekhnol, processings an exit ready To. makes 50 — 72% of grain.

From millet produce 2 types of millet: dranets — from grain only the outside fruit cover and the pounded millet representing polished grains from which peripheral parts and germs are removed is removed. Pounded millet contains less fat, vitamins and mineral substances. It biol, value is lower, than millet-drantsa. In millet there is a lot of nicotinic to - you, relatively are a lot of copper, nickel, manganese and zinc. Millet in to lay down. food it is applied a little since the fats which are contained in it quickly enough are oxidized and the product gains bitter smack.

Buckwheat To. unground buckwheat turns out by an obrushivaniye of whole grain of a buckwheat. Other grades buckwheat To. (passed also Smolensk) receive by crushing of unground buckwheat. In comparison with others buckwheat To. contains a little smaller amount of carbohydrates and bigger amount of protein and cellulose. In buckwheat To. a lot of protein with a favorable ratio of amino acids contains relatively, however for better balancing of amino-acid structure of food it is recommended to use buckwheat cereal with milk. Comprehensibility of proteins buckwheat To. does not exceed 70%, fats of 92%, carbohydrates of 94%. Buckwheat To. it is rich with lecithin (920 mg of %) and vitamins: thiamin in it in 5 times more, than in semolina To., is twice more, than in pearl-barley; it by 2,5 times surpasses the others in the content of Riboflavinum To., and on the content of magnesium concedes only to bean.

All types oat To. at a sufficient provarivaniye give a significant amount of mucous broth which together with milk is a part of the most rigid diets. Proteins oat To. have lipotropic properties and are used in to lay down. food at diseases of a liver and heart. Content of fat in oat To. above, than in other types of grain.

In to lay down. food the oat flour and oat-flakes differing in high nutritional value and comprehensibility, and, especially in children's are widely used and to lay down. food, dishes from oat To. it is necessary to prepare on milk, than shortage of calcium is filled.

Semolina To. it is developed from strong breeds of wheat, from the central part of grain — endosperm which by a coarse grinding is turned into K. V a manna To. many digestible carbohydrates and a significant amount of protein contain. Use by a manna To. in to lay down. food it is based on its bystry razvarivayemost and high comprehensibility (apprx. 100%). Proteins semolina To. quickly are digested under the influence of pepsin and trypsin.

Rice To. prepares from the brought-down or polished grains what its nutrition value depends on. The polished rice, in Krom all covers and germs of grain are removed, differs from the fat which is brought down by smaller contents, cellulose, ashes and vitamins. Rice protein content makes only 6%, however the amino-acid structure it is closer to proteins of animal origin.

Barley To. it is subdivided into the following types: pensak — To. from grains of barley from which only outside covers are removed; yachnevy To., edges prepares by crushing of a pensak (nutrition value at the same time does not change); pearl-barley To. — the brought-down grains of barley subjected to grinding (nutritional value decreases a little). Barley To. differ in the considerable content of cellulose, their comprehensibility is rather small, they contain a significant amount of iron, folic to - you (apprx. 65 mkg of %).

Corn To., corn flakes and the blown-up grains differ in the high content of protein, but comprehensibility does not exceed it 70%. Distinctive property corn To. ability to slow down processes of fermentation and rotting in intestines is. It contains relatively a lot of iron, and also copper and nickel.

Sagos natural receive from sago palm trees. It contains apprx. 7% of proteins, 0,2% of fat, 82,7% of carbohydrates. The artificial sago is developed from starch.

To. widely apply in to lay down. food. Ability to boil soft quickly (semolina To.) and to form a large amount of mucous broth (rice, oat, pearl-barley, yachnevy To., the sago) is used in diets at went. - kish. diseases. The sago, besides, is shown in diets at a Gee's disease and an idiopathic steatorrhea when it is necessary to exclude from a diet of a glyuteina of cereals. Low comprehensibility of cellulose yachnevy To. causes their broad use at obesity and alimentary diseases. Lipotropic effect of millet and buckwheat To. it is used at diseases of a liver, cardiovascular and nervous systems. Yachnevy and corn To. favorably influence a hemopoiesis. Oat To. enters a diet at lead intoxication since promotes mobilization of lead from depot and to its removal from an organism.

In total To. shall not have foreign smacks and smells. Limit rates of humidity fluctuate from 12,5 to 15,5% depending on

K. K type of weed impurity K. carry the same types, as in grain, and also not brought down grains, beaten kernels and muchel. For all grades and types To. uniform marginal amounts of metal impurities are established (no more than 3 mg / 1 kg To.) and mineral — no more than 0,05% (for oat To. and broken rice — no more than 0,1%). Impurity of a corn cockle is allowed only in oat To. (no more than 0,1%). The total amount of impurity of weed plants is allowed only in millet, oat, wheat, barley To. (no more than 0,05%), from them the bitterling and a coronilla no more than 0,02%. In all To. there should not be an impurity of seeds of a heliotrope opushenno-fetal and a gray-haired trikhodesma. The quantity of substandard kernels, particles of covers, stalks, and also not brought down grains and muchelya is allowed depending on a grade To.

Rooms for storage To. shall be ventilated well (air humidity shall not exceed 70%, t ° 10 °) and to be protected from rodents. Joint storage with is not allowed To. odorous substances and products.

Packaged in bags To. stack with intervals from walls and between stacks not less than 0,5 m. Millet, oat and corn To. stack in lower stacks (from 6 to 12 bags), and rice, semolina, barley and buckwheat To. in higher (from 8 to 14 bags). In stacks it is possible to stack only homogeneous K. Periodicheski it is necessary to check temperature, humidity To., infectiousness granary wreckers etc.

During the transportation To. in cars, on vessels, cars to these means of transport the same requirements, as are imposed to warehouse.

See also Grain products .

Bibliography: Hygiene of food, under the editorship of. K. S. Petrovsky, t. 2, page 24, M., 1971; Clinical nutrition, under the editorship of I. S. Savo-shchenko, page 84, M., 1971; Technical biochemistry, under the editorship of V. L. Kretovich, page 104, M., 1973; Chemical composition of foodstuff, under the editorship of A. A. Pokrovsky, M., 1976.

V. A. Kudasheva.