GRADENIGO SYNDROME (G. Gradenigo, the ital. otorhinolaryngologist, 1859 — 1926) — a combination purulent (is more often acute) inflammations of a middle ear with paresis or paralysis of the taking-away nerve, with pains on the course of a trifacial, and also with the relative deafness caused by the combined defeat of the sound carrying out and sound perceiving systems. Results from development of purulent process in the field of a top of a pyramid (see. Petrositis ).
It is described in 1904 Mr. of Gradenigo. Damage of the taking-away nerve and pain on the course of a trifacial can arise both in initial, and in late stages of an inflammation of a middle ear (see. Otitis ). One of the factors contributing to G.'s emergence by the village is strongly developed pnevmatization of a temporal bone, at a cut of a cell extend in a top of a pyramid. Damage of the trigeminal and taking-away nerves in most cases unstable, it can be caused by toxic damage of these nerves as a result of purulent process or involvement in process of a trigeminal node, and also transition of inflammatory processes on the venous network surrounding an outside carotid artery on a cavernous sine, in a wall to-rogo there pass these nerves. Can lead distribution of reflexes from an eighth cranial nerve on the taking-away nerve to G.'s development by page, purulent process from a top of a pyramid on a meninx and development of inflammatory hypostasis, serous or purulent limited meningitis or extradural abscess.
In some cases it is possible to liquidate process by means of conservative treatment, in Krom the main role is played by antibiotics. However G.'s emergence of page at a petrositis usually indicates operations the need. All surgical methods of approach to the center of an infection in a pyramid divide on Extrapyramidal, intrapiramidny and combined (see. Petrositis ).
At timely begun treatment the forecast for life favorable. Hearing is not recovered.
Bibliography: The multivolume guide to otorhinolaryngology, under the editorship of A. G. Likhachev, t. 2, M., 1960; Gradenigo G. Sulla leptomeningite circoscritta e sulla pa-ralisi dell’ abducente di origine ototica, G. Accad. Med. Torino, v. 10, p. 59, 1904.
Yu. B. Preobrazhensky.