GONADOTROPIC HORMONES (grech, gone birth, seed + ad[en] of iron + tropos direction; hormones; synonym gonadotrophins) — biologically active agents cosecreted by a front share of a hypophysis and stimulating function of gonads.
Provide development and maturing of a follicle, an ovulation, development and function of a yellow body in females, growth and development of a germinative epithelium of gonads in males, biosynthesis and secretion of sex hormones — estrogen (see), progesterone (see), androgens (see). These biol, effects are caused various — follicle-stimulating (FSG), luteinizing (LG), luteotropic (LTG), acting as separately, and in a synergism. Are developed by basphilic cells of a front share hypophysis (see), secretion of gonadotrophins a hypophysis is regulated by gonadotropic rileasing-hormones of a hypothalamus (see. Hypothalamic neurohormones ). During a normal menstrual cycle significant increase in products and allocation of during the preovulatory period is observed that provides approach of an ovulation. After approach of a menopause products and allocation of gonadotrophins sharply increase. At castration the maintenance of FSG in blood considerably increases. At pregnancy at the person and primacies, except pituitary gonadotrophins, the placenta produces the gonadotropic chorionic hormone close on biol, to properties to pituitary L G. At one-hoofed mammals the gonadotrophin close on properties to pituitary FSG (a gonadotrophin of serum of zhereby mares) is produced. Qualitative and quantitative test of is based on change biol, activities (on change of weight, a gistostruktura, biochemical, indicators in bodies of reproductive system at laboratory animals) and Immunochemical activities (with use of various immune systems, including and using radioimmunol. methods). Earlier gonadotropic activity was measured in biol, units (mouse and uterine, rat, rabbit etc.). The committee of experts in biological standardization of WHO approved the international standards for definition of FSG-, LG-and LTG-activity.
Treatment of is possible only on condition of preservation of function of gonads when pathology of reproductive function both at women, and at men is caused by decrease in products and secretion of gonadotrophins. In a wedge, practice relatives on biol, to action apply to pituitary drugs: as L G analog — chorionic gonadotrophin (see), allocated from urine of pregnant women; as an analog of FSG — serumal gonadotrophin (see) or the gonadotrophin allocated from urine of women with a menopause.
The chorionic gonadotrophin for injections is appointed to the women suffering from disturbances of a menstrual cycle and infertility at sufficient development of a follicle, but in the absence of an ovulation or weakness of a yellow body; to men — at a hypogonadism, a cryptorchism, an adiposogenital syndrome and other manifestations of gonadotropic insufficiency of a front share of a hypophysis. At treatment of a hypogonadism at men drug 2 — 3 times a week before achievement appoint on 2000 — 5000 PIECES a wedge, effect. At treatment of anovulatory cycles at women the gonadotrophin is entered on 1000 — 1500 PIECES daily or every other day by 6 — 7 times, since 12th day of a cycle, or once for the 12th day of a cycle in a dose of 3000 — 6000 PIECES.
Contraindications: inflammatory diseases and hormonal and active tumors of gonads, allergic reactions. It is not recommended long (more than 6 months) use of drug. The chorionic gonadotrophin is released in bottles on 500, 1000—1500 and 3000 PIECES.
The serumal gonadotrophin is almost not applied because of possible allergic reactions and antibody formation. Use a menopausal gonadotrophin much more often. Indications to its use for women: sharp underdevelopment of follicles and oestrogenic insufficiency. The menopausal gonadotrophin is entered to men with a hypogonadism of gipotalamogipofizarny genesis intramusculary on 150 — 225 PIECES by 3 times a week within several weeks before recovery of products of the spermatozoa capable to fertilization. In certain cases full development of a spermatogenesis and normal products of testosterone requires a combination of a menopausal gonadotrophin with chorionic.
At treatment of disturbances of a menstrual cycle at women gonadotropic drugs it is necessary to reach an ovulation only of one follicle. In view of very big individual sensitivity not to cause hyper stimulation of ovaries with development and an ovulation of a set of follicles that leads to polycarpous pregnancy and cysts, the minimal effective dose of FSG-drug needs to be chosen under a close check of reaction of an organism — a research of slime of a neck of uterus, vaginal swabbings, excretion of estrogen with urine and contents them in blood. The daily dose of a menopausal gonadotrophin fluctuates from 75 to 225 PIECES. The total quantity of FSG necessary for full development of one follicle, individually also makes 750 — 4050 PIECES at different women. In 24 — 48 hours after the last injection of a menopausal gonadotrophin it is entered within one-two days of 5000 — 10 000 PIECES of a chorionic gonadotrophin for calling of an ovulation.
The most known drug of a menopausal gonadotrophin — «Pergonal» (Italy) — is produced in ampoules on 75 PIECES.
Bibliography: Arsenyev M. G. Kolpotsitologicheskiye of a research in diagnosis and therapy of endocrine gynecologic diseases, L., 1973, bibliogr.; Gynecologic endocrinology, under the editorship of K. N. Shmakin, M., 1976; Savchenko O. N. Hormones of an ovary and gonadotropic hormones, L., 1967, bibliogr.; Agents stimulating gonadal function in the human, Wld Hlth Org., techn. rep. ser., No. 514, Geneva, 1973, bibliogr.; Clinical application of human gonadotrophins, ed. by G. Bettendorf a. Y. Insler, Stuttgart, 1970; Gonadotropins, ed. by B. B. Saxena a. o., N. Y., 1972; Immunoassay of gonadotrophins, ed. by E. Diczfalusy, Copenhagen, 1969.
Lake of H. Savchenko.