GOLGI COMPLEX ( S. Golgi , ital. histologist, 1844 — 1926; synonym: Golgi the device, the intracellular mesh device, a lamellar complex) — one of special organoids of a cell representing system of intracellular membranes; part of cytoplasmatic vacuolar system.
G. K. was for the first time described by the ital. histologist C. Golgi in nervous cells where at impregnation by silver salts (see. Golgi method ) comes to light in the form of the reticulum surrounding a kernel. In ferruterous cells of G. to. is located, as a rule, between a kernel and a secretory pole. G.'s studying to. by methods of light microscopy allowed to describe it as set of small little bodies, shaped plates and bubbles — so-called dictyosomes. Dictyosomes, connecting among themselves, form nets, considerable on the area. Electronic microscopic examinations showed that each dictyosome supports group of the flattened tanks (fig.) delimited from cytoplasm by smooth membranes (gamma cytomembranes, plates, lamellas). At the edges of the tank extend, from them groups small otshnurovyvatsya (to dia. apprx. 40 nanometers) bubbles, or Golgi's sacks. Tanks are adjoined by large vacuoles (see). All these components G. to. are functionally interconnected and capable to develop one of another.
G.'s communication to. with secretory functions of cells D. N. Nasonov for the first time established (1923). Proteinaceous molecules of a secret are synthesized on ribosomes of a cytoplasmic reticulum, transferred through membranes of tubules of this network where they create intersticial granules, and then move to G. to., in Krom granules of a secret are formed. This mechanism received the name of the intracellular conveyor. Apparently, during the formation of purely proteinaceous secret condensation of granules in G. to. occurs by osmotic elimination of water; glycoproteins and acid mucopolysaccharides are synthesized with G.'s participation to., which provides sulphation of proteins and synthesis of carbohydrate links of their molecules or accession of these links to molecules of protein. To. plays an important role in formation of a polisakharidny component of covers of plant cells.
In G. to. acid hydrolases which concentrate in bubbles (protolysosomes, primary lysosomes) come to light. At merge of the last to vacuoles which contain the material which is subject to digestion (phagosomas, rotted isosom), form lysosomes (see). To. together with phagosomas and lysosomes forms the vacuolar device of a cell which is of great importance in processes of intracellular digestion and maintenance of a homeostasis of a cell.
To. collapses at action to - t and solvents of lipids; it is sensitive to influence of some poisons (yperite, salts of arsenic, lead and so forth), ionizing radiation. To. changes at starvation, aging and injuries.
See also Cell .
Bibliography Nasonov D. N. The chosen works, page 16, M. — L., 1963; X and r sh G. O the principle of «conveyor» in production of enzymes exocrine cells of a pancreas, in book: Funkts, morfol, cells, under the editorship of M. N. Meysel, the lane with in., page 167, M., 1963; Cytology, the General genetics of the person, Cytoplasmatic components of a cell, under the editorship of I. A. Alov, page 54, M., 1971; G about 1 g i C. Sulla fina anatomia degli organi centrali dei sistema nervoso, Riv. sper. di freniat., Reg-gio-Emilia, v. 8, p. 165, 361, 1882, v. 9, p. 1, 161, 385,1883, v. 11, p. 72, 193, 1885.
I. E. Hesinonim