GNOTOBIOLOGIYA

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

GNOTOBIOLOGIYA (grech, gnotos known + biology; synonym gnotobiotika) — the section of experimental biology and medicine which is engaged in receiving and cultivation of animals, free from microorganisms or the animals having certain species of microbes for studying of mechanisms and forms of interaction of a microbe with an organism, fundamental problems of immunology, radiobiology and so forth G. originates in a classical method of microbiology — a method of «pure growths»; its emergence is connected with L. Pasteur and I. I. Mechnikov's names who laid the theoretical and methodological foundation of G. Objektami of a research (experimental animals) in G. the gnotobionta compared with control — the ordinary animals having normal microflora are. Gnotobionta happen two categories: 1) amicrobic, or germ-free, an animal, free from all microorganisms, including from viruses, and also macroparasites; 2) gnotofor — the former germ-free animal who became carriers of one or several types of the identified microorganisms. Refer to this category also the animals received from sterile individuals by settling of their intestinal path by microflora of strictly certain structure (so-called SPF — specified pathogen free).

Amicrobic animals receive at a full biol, isolation of individuals of one look from all others. Cultivation of amicrobic animals represents artificial continuation of prenatal sterile isolation in the post-natal period of life; it begins aseptic opening of a uterus, an incubation of embryos, etc. There are successful attempts of full removal of a bacterial flora antibiotics after settling of intestines by it. Cultivation of amicrobic animals requires the special equipment, sterile diets, mikrobiol. control of sterility, etc.

Gnotobiol. experiments are made first of all in medical and vt. microbiology and virology, infectious and noninfectious immunology and pathology, during the studying of physiology of digestion, in radiobiology and some other areas. Finds practical application in a wedge, medicine, especially in surgery, oncology, pediatrics; it is closely connected also with bioastronautics and medicine. Gnotobiol. by researches, in particular, it is shown that normal life activity of the highest animals (including the person) is possible only at safety in an organism of natural microflora. However in the sterile closed space it is artificially possible to create the conditions compensating adverse influence of lack of such microflora [Dhaka (T. D. Luckey, 1963)].

See also Germ-free animal .


Bibliography: Lebedev K. A. and Petrov R. V. Immunological problems of the closed spaces and gnotobiologin, Usp. sovr, biol., t. 71, century 2, page 235, 1971, bibliogr.; Chakhava O. V. Gnotobio-logiya, M., 1972, bibliogr.; Advances in germfree research and gnotobiology, ed. byM. Miyakawa a. T. D. Luckey, L., 1968; Germ-free biology, ed. by E. A. Mirand a. N. Back, N. Y., 1969; Germfree research, biological effect of gnotobiotic environments, ed. by J. B. Heneghan, N. Y., 1973; Handbook of laboratory animal science, ed. by E. G. Melby a. N. H. Altman, Cleveland, 1974; Heine W. Gnotobio-technik, Hannover, 1968, bibliogr.; L u-c k e y T. D. Germfree life and gnotobiology, N. Y. — L., 1963.

O. B. Chakhava.

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