GLYCOLS [diols; With n H 2n (OH) 2 ] - the diatomic alcohol which is formed during the replacement of two hydrogen atoms in hydrocarbons on hydroxylic groups; have antiseptic properties.
Are found in noticeable quantities in products bacterial rasshcheplentsya L - beta and hydroxy-butyric to - you, glycerin, grape sugar (at action of Bac. lactis aerogenes) in process fermentations (see). Names of diatomic alcohol usually form from the name of the corresponding radical with a prefix of the word «glycol» (e.g., CH 2 OH-CH 2 OH — ethylene glycol); they are considered and as oxyderivatives of the corresponding hydrocarbons (e.g., CH 3 — CHOH-CH 2 OH — a pro-pan-diol-1,2).
At which both hydroxyls are connected with the same carbon atom are fragile and at the time of education turn into aldehydes or ketones. Turn out usually from corresponding dihalide derivatives at effect of alkali.
The lowest G. — the dense colorless liquids which do not have a smell having sweet taste well water soluble and alcohol, it is difficult — on air. The highest G. difficult than a rastvorima in water, it is better — - in alcohol and ether. Enter the same chemical reactions, as monoatomic alcohol. At action on G. galoidovodorodny to - t are formed halohydrins, napr, of ethylene glycol and hydrogen chloride — etilenkhlorgidrin (CH 2 OH-CH 2 Cl).
Find broad application in various industries. A specific place is held ethylene glycol (etandiol-1,2) and its derivatives (polyglycols, glycoldinitrate, etc.). Ethylene glycol is applied as solvent, antifreeze, by production of various high polymers and plastic, in the textile, cosmetic industry and so forth.
In pharm, the industries at production biol, elixirs, antiseptic agents, ointments apply propylene glycol; thanks to a hypotoxicity it is also used by production food and confectionery.
And their derivatives have toxicity, edges increases in the following order: propylene glycol, diethylene glycol, carbitol, ethylene glycol, cellosolve, dioxane. Ethylene glycol causes irritation of mucous membranes, but does not affect skin (see. Antifreeze , Poisonings ).
Have bactericidal properties. So, vapors of propylene glycol in number of 1 g on 4 m 3 air perniciously affect many microbes; trietilglikol in konts. 10 mg on 1 m 3 air has bactericidal effect concerning svezheraspylenny staphylococcus of f of a streptococcus and a virus of a psittacosis.
Bibliography: Louri Dzh. Glycerin and glycols, the lane with English, JI., 1933; H e with m e-, yan A.N. and Nesmeyanov N. A. Beginnings of organic chemistry, t. 1, page 100, M., 1974.
L. I. Kudryashov.