GLUTAMIC ACID (alpha aminoglutaric acid, C 5 H 9 O 4 N) — monoamino dicarboxylic acid; HOOC•CH 2 • CH 2 • CH(NH 2 ) • COOH, G. to. — primary product of digestion of inorganic nitrogen, is present at vegetable and animal fabrics both in a stand-at-ease, and as a part of proteins and other biologically active agents (glutathione, folic to - you, phosphatides, etc.). It is applied as medical drug.
In some tissues of animals and the person on G.'s share to. and its amide — glutamine (see), being in a stand-at-ease, 70 — 80% of nitrogen of free amino acids are necessary. G.'s concentration is highest to. in a brain (150 mg of %) of willows to a cardiac muscle (163 mg of %). In a blood plasma G.'s maintenance to. makes 3 — 3,5 mg in 100 ml. Proteins usually contain a significant amount of G. to. Especially there is a lot of it in phytalbumins: gliadine (see) — 41% and glutelins (see) — 25%; in proteins of muscles: a myosin — 22%, actin — 15% (see. Muscular tissue ) and in proteins of a brain — 25%. In structure insulin (see) about 21% of G. enter to.
Pier. the weight (weight) of G. to. makes 147,13. Water solution G. to. has acid reaction. The isoelectric point is at 3,2 G.' pH to. restrictedly the rastvorima in water (0,843 g in 100 ml at 25 °) is also insoluble in organic solvents. From water alcohol G. to. drops out in a deposit in the form of rhombic crystals, their t ° pl 247 — 249 ° (with decomposition). In water solutions at 100 ° G. to. loses a water molecule and turns in pyrrolidone carboxylic (pyroglutaminic) to - that, the cut at pH 4,0 is in a look 98% of G. to.
In the nature it is generally widespread L-glutaminic to - that: [a] 18 D = +11,5 ° (0,1 M water solution) and [and] 20 D = +31,9 ° (5,7% solution in 20% salt to - those). However some microorganisms contain the polypeptides constructed by hl. obr. from D-glutaminic to - you (you. anthracis, etc.).
Significant amounts of G. to. are formed at mikrobiol. synthesis as a result of life activity of special strains of bacteria. To. it is possible to receive also purely chemical synthesis. Is more practical, however, to receive it from acid hydrolyzates of phytalbumins in the form of a hydrochloride. A good source of G. to. the wheaten gluten, from G.'s cut is to. also it was for the first time allocated by H. Ritthausen in the form of L-isomer in 1866. For quantitative definition of G. to. use hl. obr. various hromatografichesky methods. To. food, both free, and formed in a digestive tract at zymolysis of proteins of food, it is soaked up through an intestinal wall, without changing, and from blood quickly passes into various fabrics (a liver, kidneys, etc.), except for a brain.
There are data that G. to. plays a specific role in maintenance in a brain of such ion concentration of potassium, edges it is necessary for course biochemical, reactions of breath and glycolysis, carrying out nervous impulses and other processes. To. — the only substrate, in addition to glucose, intensively oxidized enzymes of a brain. The brain contains an active decarboxylase (see. Decarboxylases ) — the enzyme turning G. to. in piperidic to - that is a glutamatdekarboksilaz (KF 22.214.171.124). To. with the participation of specific fermental system it is capable to neutralize ammonia of both an exogenous, and endogenous origin, at the same time it turns into a glutamine.
To. treats replaceable amino acids, i.e. it can be synthesized in tissues of animals. Her carbon skeleton forms from S-atoms of intermediate products of exchange of carbohydrates and fats which at a certain stage of a citrate cycle form alpha and keto-glutaric to - that (see. Tricarboxylic acids cycle ). Amination of the last with the participation of specific reversibly the operating NAD(NADF) - a dependent glutamatdegidrogenaza (KF 126.96.36.199) leads to G.'s education to. In experiences with use of ammonia, marked 15 N, is shown that G. to. it is synthesized in fabrics than other replaceable amino acids earlier and more actively. This fact, and also the fact that in a liver and in kidneys — the bodies which are actively participating in a nitrogen metabolism there are no enzymes of direct synthesis of all natural amino acids, except for G. to., demonstrates that G. to. is the main thing if not the only, primary product of digestion of inorganic nitrogen, occupying, thus, central position in nitrogen metabolism (see). Nitrogen G. to. participates in the synthesis of various amino acids which is carried out by the reactions which are actively proceeding in fabrics interaminations (see). Reorganization of a carbon skeleton of G. to. leads to formation of cyclic amino acids — proline and oxyproline (see Proline), the Intermediate product at the same time, apparently, is gamma semi-aldehyde G. to. The last, being transaminated, turns into ornithine (see); losing a water molecule, gamma semi-aldehyde G. to. becomes isolated in a ring pyrrolincarboxylic to - you, edges, being recovered, turns into proline. G.'s amino group to. it is used in fabrics not only for synthesis of amino acids, but also for synthesis of some other nitrogenous substances in an organism, important in fiziol, the relation. To. it is capable to pereaminirovatsya reversibly with hypoxanthines, turning them into aminopurines (see. Purine bases ), G. to. through education asparaginic to - you with the participation of aspartate aminotransferase (KF 188.8.131.52.) can aminate inosinic to - that in adenylic. With the participation of nitrogen of an amino group of G. to. in body tissues also synthesis of purines is carried out: N 1 purine ring forms or directly from G.'s amino group to., or from an amino group asparaginic to - you, G. arising at the expense of an amino group to.
To. is glucogenic amino acid: its introduction liquidates the hypoglycemic state caused by insulin both as a result of direct glucogenic action, and as a result of G.'s influence to. content of adrenaline increases by a gormonoobrazovaniye — after its introduction to blood. To. influences secretory function of a stomach, suppressing it as a result of binding of the ammonia necessary for normal department of a gastric juice. Is explained by ability to connect ammonia to lay down. G.'s use to. (see below) at convulsive states (petit mal) which are followed by the strengthened education in a brain of ammonia and decrease in contents dicarbonic to - t. At an ulcer and a carcinoma of the stomach G.'s maintenance to. and a glutamine in a gastric juice it is increased. G.'s introduction to. to an organism can be followed by development of various toxic phenomena. Sodium salt G. to. has taste of meat and finds application in the food industry as flavoring substance (see. Glutaminat of sodium ).
Glutamic acid as drug
glutamic Acid (Acidum glutaminicum; synonym: Acidum gluta-micum, Acidogen, Acidulin, Glutan, Glutansin) — white crystal powder of acid taste, is almost insoluble in a cold water, we will dissolve in hot water, is insoluble in alcohol.
At intake it is well soaked up from went. - kish. a path and quickly it is found in blood. G.'s distribution to. in fabrics occurs unevenly: in large numbers it is fixed in muscular and nervous fabrics, in a liver, kidneys. Locally renders irritant action. Resorptive action of G. to. is defined by its participation in a metabolism. Most clearly under the influence of G. to. content of ammonia in fabrics decreases.
G. is applied to. preferential in nevrol, and psychiatric practice at treatment of various diseases of c. N of page: oligophrenias, psychoses, reactive states (especially astheno-depressive and asthenohypochondriac), neurosises, epilepsy (preferential small attacks with equivalents). Therapeutic effect of G. to. at epilepsy is explained by ability of drug to reduce concentration of ammonia in blood and to normalize contents in it dicarbonic to - t.
In the nursery psikhonevrol, the practician G. to. it is applied at a delay of mental development of various etiology, at a Down syndrome, neurotic states, in the recovery period after encephalitis, tubercular meningitis, poliomyelitis.
In a combination with thiamin (see) and pyridoxine (see) G. to. recommend to appoint for prevention and treatment of neurotoxic side effects of drugs of group of hydrazide isonicotinic to - you (an isoniazid, Ftivazidum, etc.).
Drug G. to. it is applied inside or intravenously. In G. to. appoint 1 g 2 — 3 times a day in 15 — 30 min. prior to food. In case of dispeptic frustration drug should be accepted in time or after food. Duration of courses of treatment fluctuates from 1 — 2 to 6 — 12 month. Intravenously apply 1% solution G. to. on 10 — 20 ml daily or every other day courses on 15 — 20 injections.
Side effect To. it is usually shown by dispeptic frustration and signs of excitement of c. N of page. At use of drug in the form of powders the irritation of a mucous membrane of a mouth can be observed. For prevention of this complication it is necessary to rinse after reception of powders a mouth weak solution of hydrosodium carbonate (baking soda). For reduction of side effect of G. to. on went. - kish. the path should be used for intake of a tablet, coated, or tablets, soluble in intestines.
Contraindications to G.'s appointment to. — diseases of a liver, kidneys, went. - kish. path, bodies of a hemopoiesis, feverish states, hyperexcitability.
Forms of release: powder, tablets, coated (Tabulettae Acidi glutaminicae obductae), on 0,25 g, tablets, soluble in intestines (Tabulettae Acidi glutaminici enterosolubiles), no of 0,25 g; ampoules on 5 and 10 ml of 1% of solution. Close to G. to. on action and use are its calcic and magnesian salt.
Bibliography: Braunstein A. E. Biochemistry of amino-acid exchange, M., 1949, bibliogr.; Maister. Biochemistry of amino acids, the lane with English, M., 1961; Force * to about in and A. I. Glyutamin and glyutaminovy acid in muscles at various functional conditions of an organism, in book: Vopr, biochemistry of muscles, under the editorship of D. L. Ferd-mana, page 221, Kiev, 1954, bibliogr.; G of e-enstein J. P. a. Winitz of M. of Chemistry of the amino acids, v. 1—3, N. Y. — L., 1961; Meister A. Biochemistry of the amino acids, v. 1—2, N. Y., 1965; Pharmacological basis of therapeutics, ed. by L. S. Coodman a. A. Gilman, L., 1975.
A. I. Silakova; V. K. Muratov (pharm).