GLUCONIC ACID (synonym: glikogenovy acid, dekstronovy acid, maltonovy acid) — 1,2,3,4,5-pentaoxycaproic acid (2, 3,4,5,6-pentaoxyhexane acid), CH 2 OH —(CHOH) 4 — COOH.
To. is a product of enzymic oxidation of glucose glucose oxydas. This reaction is widely used in clinic at diagnosis and control of treatment at disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism — diabetes, acute pancreatitis, etc. (see. Gorodetsky methods ). It is characterized by the same spatial relationship of H-and OH-group, as well as in a molecule of glucose:
Fosforilirovanny derivative G. to., e.g. 6 phosphogluconolactone, play an important role in primary system producing energy in a human body and animals — a pentozny cycle (see. Carbohydrate metabolism ).
To. belongs to the class hexonic (aldohexonic to - the t, exists in the form of two optical isomerides. In the nature D-isomer G. preferential meets to.; [a] 20 D it is equal — 6,72 ° (in water). D-gluconic to - that represents crystals, water soluble and in the diluted alkalis and insoluble in alcohol and ether; t ° pl 125 — 126 °.
At the expense of OH group G. to. it is capable to enter many reactions, including to be acetylated and methylated.
In water solutions G. to. slowly forms gamma and delta lactones (see. Lactones ). At oxidation of primary spirit group G. to. it is formed sugar to - that, at recovery — kapron to - that. Receive D-gluconic to - that by oxidation of D-glucose in the electrolytic way or it is enzymatic.
Calcic salt D-gluconic to - you finds broad application in medicine as antiallergenic means, for increase in coagulability of blood and so forth (see. Calcium, drugs ).
See also Hexonic acids .
V. A. Popkov.