From Big Medical Encyclopedia

GLIKOGENOVY TEST (synonym hepatic test) — posthumous determination of content of a glycogen in a liver. It is offered A. Lakassanem and E. Martin in 1899 for difference of nonviolent death from violent.

The glycogen always contains in a liver at quickly come death while at deaths door with the previous long agony — is absent. In the latter case Lakassan and E. Martin explained existence of nek-ry quantity of a glycogen in a liver with disturbance of a current of an agony: asphyxia, cardioplegia, etc. Further these provisions were confirmed with numerous observations and experiments. Exceptions of the general rule are rare. By the time of death in cases of a long disease all glycogen of a liver passes into sugar which is very quickly spent; there is neither glycogen, nor sugar in a liver. After quickly come death the glycogen of a liver is split to the glucose disappearing from a liver of a corpse only with development of putrefactive changes.

To of the item it is simple and available. The piece of a liver weight apprx. 100 g is small cut with a knife, filled in with double quantity a dist, waters also boil 1 — 2 min., having added several drops acetic to - you for sedimentation of proteins. Muddy or opalescent broth contains a glycogen, in transparent broth there is no glycogen. For best accuracy tests A. V. Rusakov (1946) suggested to layer strong alcohol on the surface of broth, thanks to Krom the ring of opacification even appears at the small maintenance of a glycogen in broth. More often happens to establish enough existence or lack of sugar in hepatic broth; sugar is defined by the same way, as at a research of urine (see. Altkhauzena method , Benedikta methods , Urine, methods of a research ).

A. A. Kryukov (1902) showed that sugar in hepatic broth is absent in case of death from overcooling and always is in a large number at an alcoholic poisoning. This fact can be a differential sign, especially in the presence of damages and the putrefactive phenomena. Constant presence of sugar at hepatic broth at poisoning with the poisons which are quickly leading to death, especially operating on c is established to them. N of page. At slow death from poisoning sugar in hepatic broth is absent. The same is established by A. V. Rusakov (1946) concerning death from starvation, at a cut in a liver there is no sugar left. And. V. Rusakov made the essential amendment to ideas that at deaths door from the injury which is followed by shock or bleeding, sugar in a liver remains; it is right only in the first 1 — 2 hour after an injury, but further traumatic shock or blood loss lead to exhaustion of a reserve of carbohydrates in a liver and in 4 — 5 hours after an injury or the beginning of bleeding in a liver there is no sugar left at all. The exception is made by injuries of a brain at which the glycogen long remains in a liver if the pneumonia which is quickly leading to depletion of a liver carbohydrates does not join.

A. V. Rusakov recommended to make G. of the item for an exception of operational shock in cases of sudden death on the operating table or soon after operation: at deaths door from operational shock the glycogen and sugar in broth of a liver are absent, unlike other high-speed reasons (asphyxia, an embolism, etc.).

In each case it is necessary to consider conditions of approach of death. So, sugar in a liver can be absent also at the late operative measure (a severe injury, intoxication, hours-long Ilheus). Presence of a glycogen or sugar can indicate insufficiency of medical actions, napr, in case of death on the operating table of the patient with an extrauterine pregnancy and bleeding existence of a glycogen in hepatic broth says that death came not from operational shock, and from acute blood loss.

Thus, G. to the item can be useful to the forensic scientist and the pathologist in the analysis of the mechanism of death (thanatogenesis) in the most various cases (V. S. Tishin, 1958, 1961).

Of the item is supplemented with the methods of quantitative definition of a glycogen and other sugary substances in a liver specifying ideas of dynamics of carbohydrate metabolism of a liver at different types of death.

Bibliography:V. S silences. Content of sugary substances in a liver of corpses at various terminal states of an organism, in book: Vopr, sudebnomed. examinations, under the editorship of M. I. Avdeev, century 3, page 224, M., 1958; it, the Research of sugary substances in a liver of corpses at sudden death, Arkh. patol., t. 23, No. 1, page 65, 1961, bibliogr.

N. K. Permyakov, I. I. Finkel.