STEKOLNAYa INDUSTRY, occupational health

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

GLASS INDUSTRY — the industry producing construction, technical, optical and medical glass, a glass container and ware, warm and waterproofing materials, art products, etc. Producing departments of glass-works are the compound workshop, and also workshops of development and processing of products.

In the compound workshop the quartz sand, soda, chalk, dolomite, a pegmatite, sodium sulfate and other components entering furnace charge are exposed to crushing, drying, sifting, weighing and mixing. Production in this workshop in case of leakage of the equipment, weak mechanization and its automation is followed by dust content of air. Dust (see) highly disperse (more than 70 — 80% of dust particles the size less than 5 microns has), the content of 60 — 75% of free silicon dioxide. High concentration of dust are noted on sites of unloading, a grinding and drying of components of furnace charge. Operation of dryer drums, spherical mills is followed noise (see), level to-rogo reaches 100 — 105 dB.

In the workshop of development make glass melting in bathtubs or pot furnaces. Technological process of production of construction, technical and container glass is almost completely mechanized, and workers perform function of control. Art a stekloizdeliya are developed manually directly at furnaces or by stekloformuyushchy machines automatic machines. Working conditions in this workshop (see. Hot workshops ) are characterized by high temperature of air (26 — 38 °), the infrared (thermal) radiation, air pollution by dust and toxicants, noise. A source of heat releases are surfaces of bathtubs, furnaces, regenerators, various stekloformuyushchy cars, temperature to-rykh reaches 60 — 175 °. A bowl-fire of big intensivnost is the melted glass melt. In air of a working zone of typesetters of glass melt, vyduvalshchik of crystal vapors of lead are found (see). During the operation of stekloformuyushchy machines, welding of glass blocks there is a pollution of the air environment carbon monoxide (see), acrolein (see) and sulfur dioxide gas.

Such types of works as development of large crystalware, fragment of glass manually, shift of glass blocks, etc., demand considerable muscular tension.

In the workshop of processing of products carry out cutting of preparation on machines of fire cutting, grinding of a bottom and edges, put a diamond side on machines with abrasive disks, carry out polish of a product smesyo, consisting from fluoric (40%) and a chamois (60%) of acids, and its painting.

During the drawing a diamond side, manual grinding of a bottom and edge the grinder is affected by noise, dust, high-frequency local vibration (see), a static load on upper extremities.

At chemical polish the air environment is polluted by couples to - t. Razrisovshchiki on glass are affected by vapors organic solvents (see) and the dyes of salts of heavy metals which are a part (see. Poisonings ). Performance of all works in the workshop of processing is followed by the considerable tension of the visual analyzer.

At violation of the rules of the accident prevention developing of various diseases is possible. In compound workshops there can be diseases of a dust etiology — pneumoconiosis (see), a mechanic bronchitis (see), and also diseases of skin; at sostavshchik of furnace charge for special grades of glass (see) — plumbisms (see Lead, the prof. of harm); at workers of the workshop of development the increased frequency of acute respiratory diseases, diseases of a mucous membrane of a nose and throat, disturbances of functions of a cardiovascular and nervous system can be observed; at women disturbances of a menstrual cycle, a complication of pregnancy are revealed. In the workshop of processing of stekloizdeliya at grinders cases of diseases of a peripheral nervous system (vegetative polyneurites, neuritis of an elbow nerve, etc.), and also a mechanic bronchitis are noted; polishers have rhinitises, nasopharyngites (see Rhinitis), cases are frequent burns (see) and cuts (see. Microtrauma ).

Preventive a memeropriyatiya are planned and carried out taking into account adverse production factors and are directed: in the compound workshop — on mechanization of processes of unloading and a rastarivaniye of loose materials, implementation of automatic weight transfer lines with distance steering for a dosage of components of furnace charge and automation of works on mixing of furnace charge, improvement of processes of a granulation, briquetting and moistening of furnace charge, transportation of loose materials (e.g., vakuumtransporty, pneumotransport in a tight coat), the maximum sealing and the equipment of the raising dust units respiration devices; in the workshop of development — on mechanization of processes fragments of glass and service of furnaces, the equipment of sources of heat release by means of a heat-shielding (heat insulation, reflective screens), rational ventilation of workshops the aeration not blown lamps, the organization of the optimum mode of air delivery to jobs; in the workshop of processing — on mechanization of processing the glass products, mechanization and distance steering by a polishing process, the equipment of jobs of razrisovshchik the effective local exhaust ventilation (see). Introduction of rational work-rest schedules, carrying out production gymnastics, self-massage, strict observance of measures of personal hygiene is important (see).

The items going to work to all workshops C. surely subject preliminary, and afterwards to periodic medical examinations according to the order of the Minister of Health of the USSR (see. Medical examination, Professional selection).

Bibliography: Lashchuk G. N. Impact of a complex of adverse production factors on grinders flew down-loizdely also its prevention, the Gigabyte. work and the prof. having got sick., No. 2, page 12, 1978; About TV and and I. S. A vibration disease at the workers processing glassware, the Doctor, business, No. 7, page 131, 1972; SU of a pony of c to and y M. Ya., etc. The main problems of occupational health in glass-making, in book: Gigabyte. work, under the editorship of Yu. I. Kundiyev, century 11, page 56, Kiev, 1975; Sukhareva A. I. Decrease in dust content of air on glass-works, L., 1976; Shleyfman F. M, etc. Working conditions and health of workers of glass-making, Gigabyte. the work ii of the prof. having got sick., No. 10, page 8, 1979; Menzel-L i p i n s k and M., Gruszka A. i. L i p i n s k i E. Ocena zogrozenia otowic^ hutnik6w szkla krysztalowego na padstawie badan toksykologicznych i neurologicznego, Med. Pracy, t. 22, s. 227, 1971; R o z-k o w s k i K. i. i. Ocena obci^zenia prac^ robotniktfw niekt6rych stanowisk pracy w hucie szkla, ibid., t. 23, s. 213, 1972.

F. M. Shleyfman, O. V. Chebanova.