From Big Medical Encyclopedia

GISSA OF THE ENVIRONMENT (Ph. H. Hiss, amer. bacteriologist, 1868 — 1913; a synonym a motley row) — the nutritious differential and diagnostic environments used in microbiology.

Of page intend for differentiation and diagnosis of microorganisms on their ability to selectively ferment various carbohydrates with education to - you or to - you and gas.

Of page represent usual mediums in which in addition bring various carbohydrates (as substrate) and the color indicator. Thus receive a set of environments according to a type of examinees of carbohydrates. Distinguish the following G. of page: liquid, semi-fluid and Wednesdays with serum. As carbohydrates use pentoses (pectine sugar, xylose, rhamnose), hexoses (glucose, levulose, mannose, a galactose), disaccharides (a maltose, lactose, sucrose, trehalose, cellobiose, melibiose), trisaccharides (raffinose, melicitose), polysaccharides (inulin, a dextrin, soluble starch, a glycogen), high-atomic alcohols (glycerin, erythritol, adonit, arabit, a mannitol, dulcite, sorbite, an inositol), glucosides (salicin, esculin, coniferin, ursin). It is better to use the carbohydrates which are specially prepared for bacterial, is more whole. From indicators apply Andrade indicator (see), bromtimolovy blue, bromkrezolovy red litmus, azolitmin, rosolic to - that with methylene blue.

Fluid mediums of Giss

(to Hottinger's broth divorced by 10 times or other basis, almost free of carbohydrates) add 0,25 — 1% of the corresponding carbohydrate and 1 — 2% of the indicator To peptone water. pH of the environment — 7,1 — 7,0. Wednesday is spilled in test tubes. On a bottom of test tubes place a float in the form of the tubule soldered since one end for catching of gas, will sterilize fractionally.

Semi-fluid circles of Giss

add 0,5 — 0,8% To fluid mediums an agar agar. On discoloration of the indicator after crops judge formation of acid products; filling of a float with gas or a rupture of an agar indicates formation of gas from carbohydrate. If the culture does not ferment carbohydrate, color of the indicator does not change and formation of gas is not observed.

Giss's circles serum. Bring 3 h sterile bull serum to 1 h a distilled water with carbohydrate and the indicator. This Wednesday use in those cases if microbes badly grow on usual G. at page.

The village can understand as G. first of all fluid and semi-fluid mediums though Giss used hl. obr. Wednesdays with serum and these Wednesdays called by the name.

Of page were gradually enriched with new carbohydrates, indicators and a basis. Of page are issued also in the form of standard dry drugs with various nutritious bases. Though all these modifications essentially did not change character of environments, nevertheless it is more correct to call them Gissa environments. Of page were widely used only, especially a row: glucose, lactose, mannitol, sucrose, maltose.

See also Differential and diagnostic environments , Mediums .

Bibliography: Kozlov Yu. A. Mediums in medical microbiology, page 80, M., 1950; The Guide to microbiological diagnosis of Infectious diseases, under the editorship of K. I. Matveev, page 98, 114, M., 1973; Hiss P. H. Beitrag zur physiologisehen Differenzierung des Pneumococcus und des Streptococcus und zu den Methoden KapselfSrbung, Zbl. Bakt., I. Abt. Ref., Bd 31, S. 302, 1902; it, On fermentative and agglutinative characters of bacilli of the «Dysentery group», J. med. Res., v. 13, p. 1, 1904.

And. H. Vinogradova.