GIRTL Josef (Hyrtl Joseph, 1811 — 1894) — the Austrian anatomist, the member of the Vienna academy of Sciences (1847), the honorary member of a number of foreign academies. Was born in Hungary. Ended in 1833. Vienna in un-t also worked as the prosector. Since 1837 professor of anatomy Prague un-that, and since 1845 — Vienna un-that.
Since 1874 owing to the progressing blindness retired.
Y. Girtl studied a structure of bones, muscles, internals, a comparative anatomy of vessels. It described a number of anatomic educations which bear his name: a roof of a drum cavity (Girtl's plate), a temporal and buccal opening in an infratemporal pole of a skull (Girtl's opening), an iliolumbar muscle (Girtl's muscle), the lower muscular and fibular channel (Girtl's channel), a circular muscle in an upper part of a rectum (Girtl's sphincter), a veniplex at an isthmus of a thyroid gland (Girtl's texture), etc. «The management to anatomy of a human body with the instruction on the physiological bases and practical application», the sustained 20 publications (1846 — 1889), and the «Guide to topographical anatomy» republished 8 times (1847 — 1884) are written to them. These guides were translated into many languages, including and into Russian. The «Guide to anatomic preparation» written to them (1860 — 1861) in many respects promoted development of the anatomic equipment. Number of researches Y. Girtlya it is devoted to history of anatomic terminology. Among his numerous pupils there was V. L. Gruber.
Works: Handbuch der topographischen Ana-tomie, Bd 1 — 2, Wien, 1853, 1860 u. a. (Russian lane, SPb. — M, 1860 — 1861); Lehr-buch der Anatomie des Menschen, Wien, 1878 (Russian lane, M., 1879, etc.); Onomato-logia anatomica, Geschichte und Kritik der anatomischen Sprache der Gegenwart, Wien, 1880.
Bibliography: Bardeleben K. Joseph Hyrtl, Dtsch, med. Wschr., S. 619, 1894; Biographisches Lexikon der hervorra-genden Arzte, hrsg. v. A. Hirsch, Bd 3, S.361, B. — Wien, 1931; SchultheiszE. Josephus Hyrtl anatomiae professor ordinarius, Orv. Hetil., v. 105, p. 1232, 1964.
L. F. Gavrilov, M. P. Multanovsky.