GIEY-LUSSAC Joseph

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GIEY-LUSSAC Joseph

GIEY-LUSSAC Joseph (Gay-Lussac Joseph Louis, 1778 — 1850) — the French chemist and the physicist, the public figure, the member of the Parisian academy of Sciences (1806), the foreign honorary member of the St. Petersburg academy of Sciences (1826). In 1800 graduated from Polytechnical school in Paris. Since 1809 professor of chemistry at Polytechnical school and professor of physics in Sorbonne (Paris). Since 1832 directed department of the general chemistry in the Parisian botanic garden (Jardin des Plantes). Numerous researches and Ge. Gay-Lussac's opening exerted a great influence on development of chemistry, chemical technology and physics.

It opened the law of thermal expansion of gases (1802).

Made together with Humboldt (And. Humboldt) numerous analyses of air in the territory of the different countries, and also at various heights also found that the ratio of the main components of air (oxygen and nitrogen) is almost constant. To them it is established that volumes of the interacting gases belong to each other and to volumes of light-end products of reaction as small integers (1808). This law called by the law of volume ratioes of gases was important for development of the atomic molecular theory in chemistry.

Ge. Gay-Lussac studied iodine, chlorine, sulfur and a series of compounds; developed methods of the analysis of many substances; improved technology of receiving by a chamois to - you, having offered a design of the special tower afterwards called the Gay-Lussac tower (1827). Its works on release of cyan and research of properties of its connections formed the basis of the theory of radicals.

Ge. Gay-Lussac was a member of many economic and administrative commissions, was repeatedly elected the member of the Chamber of Deputies of France (1831 — 1839).


Works: Dilatation des gases et des vapeurs, Ann. Chim., t. 43, p. 137, 1802; Recherches physico-chimiques faites sur la pile, t. 1, P., 1811; Gours de chimie, t. 2, P., 1828; Das Volumgesetz gasformiger Verbindungen, Lpz., 1893 (sovm, with Humboldt A.); Untersuchungen tiber das Jod, Lpz., 1899.

Bibliography: M. A fleas. Biographic reference book, outstanding chemists, t. 1, page 233, L., 1929; Dangniemang F. History of natural sciences, lane. With it., t. 3, page 254, M. — L., 1938; D at and M. Istoriya of chemistry, the lane with ital., M., 1966; Blanc E. et D e 1 h about u m e L. La vie 6mouvante et noble de Gay-Lussac, Limoges, 1950.

B. P. Mishin.

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