GHANA, the Republic of Ghana — the state in Zap. To Africa on the coast of the Gulf of Guinea. Territory of 238,5 thousand km 2 . Population of 9,9 million people (1975). The capital — Accra (738 thousand zhit., including the satellite town the Subject port, 1970). Ofits. language — English.
— the former colony of Great Britain. Since 1957 — the independent country, since 1960 — the republic. The head of state — the president. Enters the British Commonwealth of Nations (it is shaven.).
The most part of the territory of G. — the low plain. The climate is equatorial and monsoonal, on Yu.-Z. — transitional to equatorial. Average monthly temperature of the warmest month (March) 27 — 32 °, the coldest (August) 23 — 26 °.
— developing country, the basis of the economy — agriculture. 1/5 economically active population are engaged in production of the main commodity culture (cocoa beans). Also the cassava, batata, a yam, coffee, corn, rice, tobacco are grown up; on S. of the country the livestock production is developed. A primary branch of the industry — mining (extraction of manganese, gold, diamonds).
73% of the population of G. make the people of Guinean tongue group. Vital rates (for 1000 zhit.) in 1970: birth rate — 46,6, the general mortality — 17,8, a natural increase — 28,8, child mortality — 156 for 1000 live-born (1960). Average life expectancy — 46 years (1965 — 1970).
In structure of incidence of the population infectious and parasitic diseases prevail: malaria (on S. of the country about 75% of children are struck), a leprosy, tuberculosis (552 on 100 thousand zhit., 1970), measles (536,3 on 100 thousand zhit.), helminthoses, including urinogenital schistosomatosis. In certain settlements more than 10% zhit. has a blindness because of an onchocercosis. In 1971 13 048 cases of cholera are registered, 641 of which ended letalno.
In each of 8 areas G. there is a medical department which directs work of the state hospitals, field groups, inoculative points and other medical public institutions. The Ministry of Health coordinates and directs work of medical departments.
In 1971 in G. 203 hospitals (from them 140 state) on 11 374 beds functioned, or 12,8 beds on 10 thousand zhit. Hospitals and beds in them were distributed as follows: 9 general hospitals on 3246 beds, 102 rural hospitals on 6338 beds, 78 small to lay down. institutions and maternity hospitals on 530 beds, one maternity hospital on 75 beds. Extra hospital service was carried out in polyclinic departments of hospitals, the centers of health care and clinics. At the centers of health care there are delivery rooms and special clinics on protection of motherhood and the childhood. In 1973 in G. 951 doctors (44,5% foreigners made), from them 418 in the public medical institutions worked (0,8 doctors on 10 thousand zhit.), 229 assistants to doctors, 30 dentists, 538 druggists, 2955 midwifes, 8613 nurses and 1067 assistants to nurses, 185 laboratory assistants, 93 X-ray technicians.
Doctors are trained at the medical school created in 1964 at un-those in Accra (annual release of 50 doctors), nurses — in 2 colleges (a course 3 years 4 months), and also at the state and missionary hospitals having 50 beds and more. The budget of health care of G. in 1970 made 14,5% of the nation-wide budget.
Bibliography Demographic yearbook 1969, p. 129, 154, N. Y., 1970; World Health Statistics Annual 1969, v. 1, p. 1, Geneva, 1972; World Health Statistics Report, v. 24, No. 11, p. 638, 1971, v. 26, No. 3, p. 136, 147, 1973.