GEXLI Thomas (Huxley Thomas Henry, 1825 — 1895) — the English doctor and the scientist, the closest associate of Ch. Darvin and the popular writer of his doctrine.
Since 1854 and until the end of life professor of a comparative anatomy and paleontology of Royal Mountain school. Since 1850 consisted the member British royal scientific about-va, was his secretary (1871 — 1880) and the president (1883 — 1885). In 1864 it is elected the honorary member of the St. Petersburg academy of Sciences.
Scientific works of T. Gekeli are devoted to various questions of biology and physiophilosophy, and also promotion of the ideas of Darwinism. Its works on morphology of jellyfishes and polyps in which it showed phylogenetic communication between polyps and jellyfishes are most known and corrected a number of the mistakes in a systematics of animals made by K. Linney, Zh. Kyuvye and other scientists.
T. Gekeli's works devoted to studying of unity of a structure of a skull at vertebrata were of great importance. It managed to show that at the lowest vertebrata the skull has no segmented structure and that it got such structure only from the highest vertebrata. These works refuted earlier existing L. Oken and J. W. Goethe's theory that the skull is result of merge together of modified head vertebrae. T. Gekeli scientifically proved an origin of birds from reptiles, having proved it by method of sravnitelnoanatomichesky studying of a basin and the lower extremities of those and other animals. The great influence on biology of 19 century was exerted by its works on a geological periodization and about its communication with history of the organic world.
Exposing unscientific nature of the theory of fatal evolution in these works, T. Gekeli put forward wrong judgment of lack of natural process in fauna. However it hotly was spaced Darwinism from attacks from clericals and aimed to bring scientific knowledge to a general population.
In T. Gekeli's creativity the lectures on biology done to them, for workers, created to it popularity among the people have great value. In the USSR they were for the first time published in 1927.
Works: The oceanic hydrozoa, L., 1859; Evidence as to man’s place in nature, L. — Edinburgh, 1863 (Russian lane, SPb., 1864); Lectures on the elements of comparative anatomy, L., 1864 (Russian lane, SPb., 1865); A manual of the anatomy of vertebrated animals, L., 1871 (Russian lane, M., 1880); Lessons in elementary physiology, L., 1874 (Russian lane, SPb., 1877); Science and culture and other essays, L. — N. Y., 1888.
Bibliography: Tops of P. Achievements of modern science and their relation to medicine and surgery, the Lecture in Gekeli's memory, the lane with it., M., 1888 and 1899; Davitashvili L. Sh., V. O. Kowalewski and T. Gekeli as scientists evolutionists, Works Ying-that stories of natural sciences, t. 3, M., 1949; In i £-at S., T. N. of Huxley, L., 1959, bibliogr.; Huxley L. Life and letters of Thomas Henry Huxley, L., 1900.
D. D. Ivanov.