From Big Medical Encyclopedia

GERTVIG Oscar (Hertwig Oskar, 1849 — 1922) — the German anatomist, the zoologist and the embryologist. Studied at universities of Yen, Zurich and Bonn. In 1872 received degree of the doctor of medicine. Worked with the famous German biologist Gekkel (E. N of Haeckel).

Since 1878 was professor of anatomy and director Anatomicheskogo in-that in Yen, and from 1888 to 1921 — the director of Anatomichesky based by it in-that in Berlin.

O. Gertvig was a pioneer of use of experimental methods in embryology and the author of the numerous works devoted to morphology of invertebrates, cytology, embryology. Along with Strasburger (E. Strasburger) he formulated (1884) one of the first theories of nuclear heredity, according to a cut at fertilization there is a merge of parent kernels of sex cells therefore ancestral features of parents are transferred to posterity.

It tracked changes of an average germinal leaf in embryonic development and the so-called theory of a tselom is offered (see. Whole ). He opposed «the mosaic theory» of A. Veysman and W. Roux, upholding a look about a ravnonasledstvennost of all cells of a germ.

O. Gertvig described a part of enamel body of tooth, edges is a rudiment for a root of the new formed tooth, was the author of a number of the managements and textbooks in biology, many of which were published in other languages, including and in Russian, and also the editor of the Archiw fur mikroskopische Anatomie und Entwicklungsgeschichte magazine.

Works: Die Coelomtheorie, Jena, 1881 (sovm.) with Hertwig R.); Lehrbuch der Entwicklungs-geschichte des Menschen und der Wirbel-tiere, Jena, 1886; Allgemeine Biologie, Die Zelle und die Gewebe, Jena, 1893 (pyc., lane, SPb., 1894); Lehrbuch der Zoologie, Jena, 1897 (Russian lane, Odessa, 1910); Die Elemente der Entwicklungslehre des Menschen und der Wirbeltiere, Jena, 1900 (rus * lane, SPb, 1908); Handbuch der vergleichen-den und experimentellen Entwicklungslehre der Wirbeltiere, Bd 1 — 3, Jena, 1901 — 1906 (Hrsg.); Das Werden der Organismen, Jena, 1916; Zur Abwehr des ethischen, des sozialen, des politischen Darwinismus, Jena, 1921.

Bibliography: Braus H. Oskar Hertwig, 1849 — 1922, Arch. mikr. Anat., Bd 97, S. 431, 1923; Festschrift fur O. Hertwig zur Feier seines 70. Geburtstages, ibid., Bd 94, 1920; K e i b e 1 F. Oskar Hertwig, Anat., Anz., Bd 56, S. 372, 1923; Neue deutsche Biographie, Bd 8, S. 706, B., 1969; W e i s-senberg R. Oscar Hertwig 1849 — 1922, Lpz., 1959, Bibliogr.

L. A. Stankievich.