GERSHUNI Grigory Viktorovich

From Big Medical Encyclopedia
GERSHUNI Grigory Viktorovich

GERSHUNI Grigory Viktorovich (sort. in 1905) — the Soviet physiologist, the member correspondent of Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1964), professor (1939). Leningrad medical in-t (1927) ended the 1st and till 1931 remained at department of physiology of it in-that. In 1931 — 1936 worked in VMA of S. M. Kirov under the leadership of L. A. Orbeli. In 1936 protected dokt, the thesis and same year headed laboratory of sensory physiology (since 1951 laboratory of physiology of hearing) Ying-that physiology of I. P. Pavlov of Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Since 1972 Ying-that heads laboratory of comparative sensory physiology of evolutionary physiology and biochemistry of I. M. Sechenov of Academy of Sciences of the USSR.

G. V. Gershuni is an author apprx. 150 scientific works devoted to hl. obr. to questions of physiology of hearing. He described telephone effect of an ear (1933), for the first time investigated microphone effect of a snail of an inner ear of the person (1937). In 1937 — 1941 studied elektrofiziol, manifestations of activity of acoustical system. In days of the Great Patriotic War organized and headed a complex research of defeats of the central departments of sense bodys at military injuries.

It having for the first time described (1945) reaction of the person to subthreshold irritations (subtouch reactions). For set of works on physiology of hearing it is conferred an award of I. P. Pavlov (1949). It developed (1955) the method of an objective audiometriya based on assessment of hearing thresholds on various reactions (a skin and galvanic reflex, a conditioned blink reflex, etc.), used in clinical practice at impossibility of the speech report on an audible signal. In the 60th G. V. Gershuni investigated patterns of the analysis acoustical system of signals of various duration that allowed to formulate some principles of the temporary and space organization of its activity. Results of these researches are used at diagnosis of defeats of the central departments of acoustical system. Since the end of the 60th years it deals with problems of evolutionary and comparative physiology of hearing — bioacoustics, acoustic behavior of different types of animals, etc.

G. V. Gershuni is the chairman Sektsii of physiology of touch systems of complex Scientific council of Academy of Sciences of the USSR on a problem of human physiology and animals. It one of organizers and editor-in-chief of the Problems of Physiological Acoustics edition, member of editorial boards and redsovet of magazines «Physiological Magazine of the USSR», «Magazine of Higher Nervous Activity», «Neurophysiology», «Achievements of Physiological Sciences». It is awarded the order the Labour Red Banner and medals.

Works: About studying of the felt (touch) and nonsensory (eubsensorny) reactions at action of external irritants to sense bodys of the person, Izv. Academy of Sciences of the USSR, It is gray. biol., No. 2, page 210, 1945; The General results of a research of activity of the sound analyzer of the person by means of different reactions, Zhurn. vyssh. nervn. deyateln., t. 7, No. 1, page 13, 1957; Mechanisms of hearing, L., 1967 (edition); Sensory physiology and its various directions, Zhurn, Ewo-lyuts. biochemical, and fiziol., t. 7, JVs 1, page 3, 1971.

Bibliography: Grigory Viktorovich Gershuni (To the 60 anniversary since birth), Fiziol, zhurn. USSR, t. 51, No. 7, page 900, 1965; Grigory Viktorovich Gershuni (To the 60 anniversary since birth), Zhurn., vyssh. nervn. deit., t. 15, century 5, page 957, 1965.

Ya. A. Altman.