GEROGIGIYENA (Greek geron the aged man + hygieinos curative, bringing health) — the section of gerontology studying influence of living conditions on process of aging of the person and developing the actions directed to the prevention of pathological aging and creation of the conditions providing to the population long, capable, healthy life.
By Aytner's definition (S. Eitner, 1966), G. — the doctrine about interrelation between age, aging, health and efficiency of the person in the conditions of the environment. As the complex social and biological science uses methods of a research and this physiology, psychology, pathologies, hygiene, a dignity. statistics, demography and sociologists. Owing to this fact its full separation from other sections of medical science is impossible. According to a profile allocate social G., utility, work and food. Solves problems of increase in life expectancy and achievement of an active old age by the prevention premature patol, aging of the population, and also a problem of providing the population of advanced and senile age with optimal conditions of life and feasible work.
Special relevance of a problem G. is acquired in the countries where increase in specific weight of persons of advanced and senile age is noted (persons of 60 years and is more senior make 15 — 20% of total number of the population). Respectively grows old and the population of able-bodied age due to increase in a share of persons in it is more senior than 40 years. Along with it there is an increase in the average forthcoming life expectancy reaching in the USSR for male population of 66 years and for women's 74 years and especially important there is a problem of working capacity, preservation of social, physical and mental health of the population till an extreme old age. In the solution of these problems of G. aging is based on data on influence social and biol, factors on fiziol, and patol. For this purpose it is necessary to know precisely conditions of normal development of an organism, an etiology and a pathogeny of diseases which complicate, reduce and exclude adaptation of an organism to aging and to factors of the environment. These data can form the basis for definition like aging of individuals and separate collectives and will help to build system of prevention respectively.
G.'s sources go to an extreme antiquity. Conscious desire of mankind to prolong life and to influence actively longevity of the person finds reflection in treatises and doctrines of ancient medicine. Recommendations of ways to longevity contain in the Ancient Chinese set of medical rules, in the Old Indian Veda (9 — 6 centuries BC) and Manu's laws (2 century BC — 2 century AD), in Hippocrates's collection (see. Hippocrates collection ), in Canon of medical science (see) Ibn-Sina. The ideas about value for a human body of the environment — climate, air and water develop in them, in addition to recommendations about personal hygiene. In Russia one of the first the doctor I. B. Fischer in the book «About an Old Age, Its Degrees and Diseases» (1754) took up these questions in the press, then they received reflection in widely famous book it. the scientist K. Gufeland «Art to prolong human life or a macrobiotic» (1797). P. Engalychev's book «About extension of human life deserves also attention. How to reach a healthy, cheerful and extreme old age» (1801). In these works which served as the beginning of versatile interest of scientists of Russia in a problem of aging and an old age and also to clarification of a role of social factors in shortening of life, not only value of factors of the environment and a way of life is reflected, but also preventive aspects medical and a gigabyte are outlined. actions for increase in resistance of an organism to these factors.
Founders of domestic gerontology S. P. Botkin, I. I. Mechnikov, I. P. Pavlov, A. A. Bogomolets, A. V. Nagorny, etc. emphasized value of social factors in development of natural aging in borders biol, a specific limit of life and in achievement with most of the population of an active healthy old age.
3. G. Frenkel shows this influence on extensive statistical material in the book «Lengthening of Life and Active Old Age» (1949).
In the USSR considerable statistical data on the natural movement of the population, health and physical are also abroad saved up. development, work, about causes of death during various periods of life which are base for the solution of problems of social G. Imeyutsya of a research of specific character, the roles of various factors of a way of life devoted to identification in achievement of an active old age. So, in 1934 — 1935. Leningrad in-t of examination of working capacity, inspecting big group of disabled people and pensioners on an old age, established connection of the state of health, working capacity and professional working capacity with the previous and current work and its situation. In 1937 at the initiative of the academician. A. A. Bogomoltsa the expedition to Abkhazia for complex assessment of the state of health of long-livers, their work, feeding habits, life, personal hygiene and national traditions was conducted.
On the width of the program, coverage of areas of observation (RSFSR, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Georgia, Estonia, Lithuania, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan) medico-social inspection more than 40 thousand persons was unique. at the age of 80 years is also more senior, organized in 1960 — 1963 Ying volume of gerontology of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences. At the same time special attention was paid to specification of calendar age of long-livers and its comparison with biol, the status, working capacity and a way of life. The program and the map of inspection thanks to versatility of objectives and care of development of the questionnaire became a standard for carrying out similar medico-social researches in many countries of the world. Results of this research and the analysis of levels of longevity allowed to establish worldwide that the high level of longevity meets in various klimatogeografichesky zones; contrary to the developed opinion it is high not in all mountainous areas; is higher at country people, and above at women is universal (see. Longevity ). The persons which reached 80-year age, as a rule, grow old physiologically. Inheritance of a sign of longevity is traced not at all. Hron, the pathology characteristic of advanced ages, occurs at long-livers less often, develops more slowly and later, proceeds more favorably. Specific weight of patients among 80-year-old is rather higher at villagers, especially at women, and among citizens — in a group of persons of brainwork.
Unlike the researches of the past which are generally directed to studying of aging of separate groups of the population, researches of the last years in the USSR are also abroad devoted to the solution of urgent problems of social, household, economic and medical security of persons of advanced and senile age. So, big specific weight among social G.'s problems sociological problems — the place and authority of the elderly person on society, on a family, on labor collective, preparation for retirement, material and legal security of an old age, a rational way of life occupy, forms of rest, etc.
Studying of the state of health and structure of causes of death of persons of advanced and senile age is a basis of development of standards of the medico-social help, forms of the ambulatory and stationary medical care, ways of prevention of a senilism.
Utility G.'s development is connected with need of adaptation of life to opportunities of the aging population. In this regard requirements to special architectural complexes, architectural and planning composition of houses nursing homes, boarding houses, apartments are developed, are established a gigabyte. norms of a microclimate, lighting, special requirements to furniture and dignity. - tekhn. to registration of interiors.
Of food studies influence of food and conditions of its reception on process of aging, develops standards of a balanced diet during various periods of human life for the purpose of prevention premature and patol, aging. Epidemiol., experimental and wedge. - fiziol, researches of food of the population reveal its role in aging of the person, allow to develop philosophy of a gerodiyetetika. The concept of the balanced food and the law of compliance of chemical structure of food to fermental systems of an organism is the cornerstone of these principles. On this basis for the population of the senior age groups sets of products, norms of caloric content and chemical structure of a diet, feature of cookery and catering services are developed (see. Food, at advanced and senile age ).
Of work studies dependence of biological and professional aging on process and working conditions, develops measures of prevention early patol, aging working, norms of an optimum operational load, a work-rest schedule for the population of the senior age groups (see. Work, at advanced and senile age ).
The solution of many problems G. is connected with policy of the state for establishment of a retirement age, privileges and compensations for the working pensioners, legal regulation of their work and social security, material security of an old age and the medical help.
The scientific and scientific and organizational center G. in the USSR is the department of a gerogigiyena Ying-that gerontology of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, and more than 20 research establishments of the country participate in development of problems G.
Results of works on G. are discussed at meetings Ob-va of gerontologists and geriatricians of the country. Urgent problems G. and results of the main researches were considered on all-Union symposiums «A way of life and aging of the person» (1964), «The social environment, a way of life and aging» (1970).
Abroad most purposefully the group of scientists of Un-ta of Humboldt in Berlin under the leadership of S. Eitner deals with issues G. Questions G. are developed in the international center of social gerontology (France), in the Netherlands center, in Ying-those industrial gerontology (USA), and also in most the centers, in-t, departments of gerontology and geriatrics.
Social and hygienic sections work at all congresses of the International association of gerontologists. Especially widely questions G. were discussed on the IX International congress of gerontologists in 1972 in Kiev, in Krom the famous hygienists of the USSR and foreign countries took part.
Publications of works in the area G. are carried out in the general periodicals on gerontology and hygiene. Teaching bases of G. is included in courses of various sections of hygiene. See also Gerontology, the Old age, aging.
Bibliography: Acharkan V. A. Grants aged and disabled, M., 1964; it, Providing veterans of work in the USSR * M., 1965; Fundamentals of gerontology, under the editorship of D, F. Chebotaryova and dr *, page 491, 513, etc., M., 1969; P r and t it is scarlet yu to M. S. K to a question of medical care in nursing homes, Owls. zdravookhr., No. 5, page 33, 1970; P at joint stock company and A. N. Dolgoletiye's N as the state problem in the USSR, in book: Probl, longevity, under the editorship of V. V. Alpatov, page 5, M., 1962; The Social environment, a way of life and aging, in book: Gerontology and geriatrics, the Year-book, under the editorship of D.F. Chebotaryov, etc., Kiev, 1970; Chebotaryov D. F. and With and h at to N. N. Medical and sanitary inspection of long people in the USSR, Vestn. USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, No. 6, page 18, 1964; Handbook of social gerontology, Societal aspects of aging, ed. by C. Tibbitts, Chicago, 1960; Praktische Gerohygiene, hrsg. v. S. Eitner u. a., Dresden, 1975, Bibliogr.; Toward an industrial gerontology, ed. by H. L. Sheppard, Cambridge, 1970.
E. I. Stezhenskaya.