GERMANIUM (Germanium, Ge) — chemical element IV of group of a periodic system of elements of D. I. Mendeleyev. At. number 32. At. weight (weight) 72,59. Four - or dvukhvalenten. Natural G. consists of mix of five stable isotopes: 70, 72, 73, 74 and 76. It is most widespread 74 Ge. 9 artificial Ge radioisotopes are received. Received the greatest practical application in radiochemistry 71Ge. The devices working at germanic semiconductors are widely used in medicine: for electrotreatment, the equipment of laboratories, in a radiology, radiobiology and so forth.
G.'s maintenance in crust makes 7×10 - 4 weight. %. The main minerals as a part of which there is G.: argyrodite (GeS 2 - 4Ag 2 S) and germanite (2GeS 2 - 3Cu 2 S-FeS), their most considerable fields in GDR, Bolivia and South Africa.
Toxic properties G. and its connections and their action on a human body are studied a little. In animal experiments it is shown that long influence of G., and also germanium dioxide and trigermane leads to disturbance of a weight gain, disturbances in c. N of page, morfol, to changes of tissues of lungs and bronchial tubes; in some cases death of animals was observed.
Bibliography: Nazarenko V. A. Analytical chemistry of germanium, M., 1973, bibliogr.; Samsonov G. V. and Bondarev of V. N. Germanida M. 1968, bibliogr.
E. A. Maksimyuk.