GEOPHYSICS — a complex of the sciences studying physical properties of Earth in general and the physical processes proceeding in its firm (lithosphere), liquid (hydrosphere) and gaseous (atmosphere) covers. It is necessary to add the biosphere to these traditionally allocated covers — the area of distribution of live organisms covering the bottom of the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and an upper part of a lithosphere. The metabolism between live organisms and the environment occurring in the biosphere defines an originality, character and intensity of geophysical processes. Studies also various parties of impact on Earth of other celestial bodies — first of all the Sun, and also the Moon and other space objects.
In relation to G.'s medicine is applied science — science about physical. to the habitat of the person. Separate geophysical. disciplines, napr, climatology, meteorology, are directly connected with such sections of medicine as medical climatology (see. Climatology medical ), balneology (see) etc.
The research such physical is of great interest to medicine. factors, as electric, magnetic and gravitational fields of Earth, studying of territorial distribution of toxic and mutagen substances, induced and natural radioactivity.
Technical and agrarian revolutions, and also rapid growth of the population of the planet led to emergence in the atmosphere, sweet waters, the World Ocean of biologically hazardous substances, various waste unusual for the nature. Anthropogenous change environment (see) can lead to serious adverse effects, such as climate change, deterioration in human health, death of separate animal species and plants. From here continuous communication of toxicology, sanitation and epidemiology with geographical sciences follows.
Geophysics as uniform complex physical. sciences about Earth it was issued only in 40 — the 60th years 20 century. Before separate geophysical disciplines developed independently from each other. The most important of them — an aerology, geomagnetism, a hydrology of waters of sushi, glaciology (the doctrine about all forms of ice in the nature), climatology, meteorology, oceanology, seismology etc.
Geophysical. sciences naturally are also inseparably linked with other sciences about Earth: geography, geochemistry, geology, and also with those biol, sciences which concern the biosphere, its history and a role in formation of modern natural complexes (see. Atmosphere , Biogeochemistry , Biosphere etc.).
The beginning of formation of geographical sciences should be carried to 17 — 18 centuries. Laplace, Newton, Euler's works (P. S. Laplace, I. Newton, L. Euler) developed the first geophysical. the theories concerning a structure of Earth, inclination: theory of inflows, oceanic currents and movement of air masses. M. V. Lomonosov's works about an origin of atmospheric electricity, a polar light and the nature of mountain building laid the foundation for much geophysical. to sciences. In 1849 the academician A. Ya. Kupfer organized the Main geophysical observatory in St. Petersburg, a cut in 100 years the name of A. I. Voyeykov — the founder physical was appropriated. climatology. The largest contribution to seismology was made by the academician B. B. Golitsyn (1862 — 1916). The Russian scientists V. I. Vernadsky, D. I. Mendeleyev made the significant contribution to studying of a lithosphere. Also V. V. Shuleykin's researches in the field of physics of the sea were of great importance.
In 1893 the stratosphere was open, development of radio led to opening of an ionosphere. Opening of the phenomenon of radioactivity allowed to create methods of age determination of Earth and separate geological eras on the rate of decay of natural long-living radioisotopes. The dominating role radiogenic was shown (caused by natural radioactivity) it is warm in thermal processes of Earth.
From first years of the Soviet power geophysical violently develop. sciences, especially applied sections connected with search of minerals, rational use of natural resources, human health. Much attention is paid to a weather forecast (see. Climate ). From direct local measurements and G.'s observations passes also to observation of the global phenomena by means of artificial Earth satellites, to the standardized methods of regular observations from earth-based and ship stations. For statistical data processing COMPUTERS are used.
Multidimensional geophysical. researches in the USSR are conducted under the direction of Head department of a hydrometeorological service at Council of ministers of the USSR, a cut combines 18 nauch. - issled. in-comrade. The network of hydrometeorological stations for continuous control of a condition of the atmosphere and internal waters of the USSR is created. The biggest (on the tonnage) in the world the fleet nauch. - issled, vessels conducts researches and gives continuous information on a condition of weather in the World Ocean. The most general questions of geophysics study in in-ta of Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
As a result of full data processing, received according to the program the International geophysical. years (1957 — 1958) and the conducted researches on the PIGAP program, can be specified parameters of a heat balance of Earth and features of interrelation of circulation of the atmosphere and the ocean are theoretically proved.
Modern development of G. is stimulated with the need for the forecast of state of environment, in particular weather and the hydrological mode, creation of the optimal conditions necessary for development of natural wealth of Earth and regulation of the natural processes proceeding with active participation of the person in identification of new influencing factors of the environment for a human body.
Bibliography: Berlyand M. E. and Kondratyev K. Ya. Cities and climate of the planet, L., 1972; The Biosphere, the lane with English, under the editorship of M. S. Gilyarov, M., 1972; M. I Budy-co. Climate changes, L., 1974, bibliogr.; Geophysics, Results of science, the Geophysics series, under the editorship of M. P. Benkov, etc., M., 1970; Pogosyankh. To the item and Turca of t of t and 3. L. Atmosfera of Earth, M., 1970; Physics of the atmosphere and questions of a biometeoro-logiya, under the editorship of B. A. Ayzenshtat and A. D. Dzhurayev, L., 1971.
K. G. Batayev.