GEOHELMINTHS (Greek ge the earth + helminths) — the helminths developing in the environment without participation of intermediate owners. Hl belong to G. obr. nematodes: ascarids, pinworms, threadworms, ankylostomas, etc. Parasitizing in a human body and vertebrate animals (it is preferential in intestines), G. lay eggs which get with excrements to the soil where develop to an invasive stage. Duration of development of eggs and G.'s larvae is defined by conditions of the environment (temperature, humidity, etc.). Infection of the person G. occurs by entering of invasive eggs in a mouth dirty hands, together with dust or the contaminated food stuffs. Some G.' larvae leave eggs to the environment and get into a human body directly through skin (e.g., ankylostomas). Animals, including insects, napr, flies who can transfer eggs G. from excrement to food can be mechanical carriers of G. The diseases caused by G. are called geohelminthoses (an ascaridosis, an enterobiosis, ankilostomidoza, a strongyloidosis, etc.) and meet in areas with temperate and warm climate, at the people who are engaged in cultivation of page more often - x. cultures. Factors of transfer of activators are: the soil, water, foodstuff, various objects contaminated by eggs or larvae of helminths.
From G.'s infection it is necessary for protection of the person sanitary improvement of the inhabited places (see), protection of the soil and water from pollution by excrements, neutralization of sewage, observance of rules of personal hygiene (see).
Bibliography: Scriabin K. I. and Schultz R. S. Bases of the general helminthology, M., 1940; Shikhobalova N. P. Helminthoses, the general to the person and animals, M., 1955, bibliogr.; Schultz R. S. and Gvozde in E. V. Bases of the general helminthology, t. 1, page 421, M., 1970.
Yu. K. Bogoyavlensky.