From Big Medical Encyclopedia

GEMOGLOBINOFILNY BACTERIA (synonym ofemofilny bacteria) — a genus of bacteria Haemophilus combining 16 types, this. Brucellaceae, order of Eubacteriales.

are of great importance in pathology of the person and hematothermal animals, causing diseases of respiratory tract, a meninx, conjunctivas, genitalias, an endocardium, a bone tissue, etc.

The name «Haemophilus» (grech, haima blood + philos the fan, the friend) arose because R. Pfeyffer (1892) managed to achieve growth of the bacteria allocated to them only at addition in a medium of blood or hemoglobin. Later it was established that influenzae are necessary for N.'s growth two factors — thermostable for X (hemin or its derivative) and rather thermolabile V (collapsing within 15 min. at t ° 120 °). The last contains in cells of many animals and vegetable fabrics, and also in bacteria. The generic name of «Haemophilus» remained for bacteria, the Crimea is necessary one of two or both growth factors. Different subjects (ferriferous porphyrinic components), and also protoporphyrin which N. influenzae can turn in gems can carry out a role of the X-factor. Properties of a V-factor possesses NAD or NADF which play an important role in the mechanism of transfer of energy.

— kokkovidny or rhabdoid cells of 0,2 in size — 0,3 X 0,5 — 2,0 microns which are located in smears one by one or couples, and sometimes in the form of short chains and groups meet also threadlike forms. On the dense environment form small, round, colourless colonies no more than 1 mm in the diameter. — gramotritsatelna, are slowly painted by the majority of aniline paints (10% water fuchsin within 10 min., to methylene blue — 5 min.); the noticeable tendency to bipolar coloring is often observed. Are not mobile, do not form a dispute, at separate types some strains form the capsule.

— aerobes (facultative anaerobes), optimum temperature of growth 37 °, pH 7,2 — 7,8. They ferment a number of carbohydrates with formation of acid, but without gas. To gelatin do not liquefy, some strains of separate types form an indole.

Relation of different types of G. to X-and to V-factors forms a basis for their differentiation since are reckoned X-and V-dependent (N. by influenzae, H. aegyptius, H. suis, H. haemolyticus; H. gallinarum), only V-dependent (H. parahaemolyticus) and only X-dependent (H. aphrophilus, H. influenzae murium, H. ovis, H. ducreyi, H. haemoglobinophilus, H. vaginalis). At two types (H. putoriorum, H. citreus) the needs for these factors still are definitely not defined,

H. piscium needs phosphothiamin.

The main mediums for allocation and G.'s cultivation. the blood agar, a «chocolate» agar, Levintal's agar and Faylds's agar serve. Apply to the research purposes Wednesdays to which add hematin (X-factor) and a yeastrel or pure OVER (V-factor).

Main representatives of gemoglobinofilny bacteria:

1. To N of influenzae it is for the first time allocated by M. I. Afanasyev in 1891 and R. Pfeyffer in 1892 (a synonym: Influenzabacillus, Bact, influenzae, H. meningitidis cerebrospinalis septicaemiae, Coccobacillus pfeifferi, stick of an influenza); till 1933 it was considered the causative agent of flu. N of influenzae of a pathogen only for the person. For small laboratory animals under natural conditions of a nepatogenn, but at intracerebral and intraperitoneal introduction with mucin to mice microbes breed and get into blood. At monkeys at intratracheal introduction of culture the bronchiolitis and Hemorrhagic bronchial pneumonia, and also meningitis developed.

The N of influenzae plays an important role in pathology of the person as the causative agent of acute diseases (meningitis, pneumonia, bronchitis, laryngitis with an epiglottiditis, an endocarditis, conjunctivitis, purulent arthritis, osteomyelitis, peritonitis, etc.) and as the reason secondary (at viral and other infections) hron. processes in bronchial tubes and lungs, inflammations of a middle ear, diseases of teeth, etc.

Potential pathogenicity of G. for the person connect with existence at them of the capsule, but acapsular strains also happen pathogens. At N. of influenzae the capsule consists of polysaccharides which define its tipospetsifichnost.

In serol, reactions capsular strains were divided into 6 types: and, b, with, d, e, f. The most pathogenic is the type b. Capsular polysaccharides, except for substances like d and with, contain phosphorus. There is a communication between the content of type-specific polysaccharide and virulence of a strain.

2. H. aegypticus (synonym: Bact.aegyptiacum, H. conjunctivitidis, Bacillus Koch — Weeks) is for the first time described by R. Koch in 1883 and Uiksy (J. E. Weeks) in 1886 as the causative agent of acute conjunctivitis of the person in the countries with warm climate (see. Koch — Uiksa a bacterium ).

Except the above-stated general properties, microbes of this look, unlike others, have ability to agglutinate erythrocytes of the person, Guinea pigs, cows and hens, and also influenzae differ on antigenic properties from N. [Pittmen and Davis (M. in Pittman, D. Davis), 1950].

3. H. parainfluenzae — the normal inhabitant of upper respiratory tracts of the person and a cat. Usually the nepatogenna, but occasionally causes a subacute endocarditis. Distinguish capsular and not capsular forms. influenzae on antigenic properties differs from N.

4. H. haemolyticus often is found in a nasopharynx of the healthy person. It is allocated at the people sick with a subacute bacterial endocarditis. The role in pathology of the person is finally not found out. The main distinctive feature — ability to form beta hemolysin.

5. H. parahaemolyticus usually is found in upper respiratory tracts of the person. Often attribute to this microbe etiol, a role at acute pharyngitis and a subacute endocarditis. Cells and colonies at it are larger, than N. have influenzae. Causes hemolysis.

6. N of ducreyi (synonym: You. ulceris cancrosi Kruse, Coccobacillus ducreyi Neveu-Lemaire, Bact, ulceris cancrosi) is allocated in 1889 by A. Ducrey. Is the activator of a venereal ulcer at the person, monkeys are susceptible to it, but small laboratory animals are not susceptible (see. Venereal ulcer ).

7. H. aphrophilus is allocated from blood and valves of heart of the people sick with an endocarditis [Khairat, 1940].

8. H. vaginalis causes vaginita in the person [Gardner and Dyyuks (Gardner, Dukes), 1955]. It is studied a little.

Bibliography: Luneva O. K. Value of a stick of an influenza and a pneumococcus at a persistent bronchial infection, Zhurn, mikr., epid, and immun., Js6 11, page 65, 1971, bibliogr.; Porubinov-Skye Y. M., Klimanskaya E. V. and Zhukovsky A. M. Studying of a role of a bacterial infection at chronic diseases of lungs at children, Pediatrics, No. 7, page 8, 1974, bibliogr.; The guide to microbiological diagnosis of infectious diseases, under the editorship of K. I. Matveev, page 345, 402, M., 1973; Alexander H. E. The haemophilus group, in book: Bacterial a. mycotic infections of man, ed. by R. J. Dubos a. J. G. Hirsch, p. 724, Philadelphia — Montreal, 1965, bibliogr.; Alexander H. E. a. Leidy G. Treatment of type-specific hemophilus influenzae infections m infancy and childhood, J. Pediat., v. 20, p. 673, 1942; Ber-gey’s manual of determinative bacteriology, ed. by R. Yo. Buchanan a. N. E. Gibbons, Baltimore, 1975, bibliogr.; Pittman M. Variation and type specificity in the bacterial species hemophilus influenzae, J. exp. Med., v. 53, p. 471, 1931; Pittman M. D e v i s D. J. Identification of the Koch — Weeks bacillus (Hemophilus aegyptius), J. Bact., v. 59, p. 413, 1950; T u r k D. G. a. M a y J. R. Hemophilus influenzae, L., 1967; Wood W. B. The hemophilus — bordetella group, in book: Microbiology, ed. by B. Davis, p. 794, N. Y., 1969.

M. Zakharova.