From Big Medical Encyclopedia

GELMINTOFAUNA OF THE PERSON (helminth[s] + fauna) — set of types of the helminths found in the person.

In total at the person it is registered apprx. 250 types. From them in the USSR apprx. 65; 20 types are most widespread: 5 types of trematodes (Opisthorchis felineus, Clonorchis sinensis, Metagonimus yokogawai, Nanophyetus salmincola schikhobalowi, Fasciola hepatica), 7 types of cestodes (Taeniarhynchus saginatus, Taenia solium and its larval form Cysticercus cellulosae, Hymenolepis nana, Hymenolepis diminuta, Diphyllobothrium latum; larval form Echinococcus granulosus, Alveococcus multilocularis), 8 types of nematodes (Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichocephalus trichiuris, Trichinella spiralis, Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, Trichosrongylus colubriformis, Strongyloides stercoralis). From akantotsefal isolated cases of parasitizing of Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus and Moniliformis moniliformis are registered.

The majority of types of helminths of the person in a puberal stage parasitizes in went. - kish. a path, but a number of types adapted to parasitizing in other bodies (a liver, a pancreas, c. N of page, respiratory organs, urinary system, blood, etc.). In a larval stage many helminths make a cycle of migration on a big and small circle of blood circulation. At the person at the same time several types of helminths quite often parasitize. Intensity of an invasion (number of helminths at one person) can be various — from units to hundreds and thousands of copies.

G.'s analysis of h taking into account features of epidemiology of helminthoses is necessary during the development of a complex of actions for fight against them in relation to local conditions and specific collective.

Studying of geography of helminths (see. Nozogeografiya ) shows that in this or that territory influence distribution of helminths edaphic-climatic, biocenotic (see. Natural ochagovost ) and social factors. For existence of biohelminths special value has dwelling in this territory of final, intermediate and additional owners. The analysis of the available data demonstrates that endemicity as their area considerably is defined by an environment of the area is characteristic of the majority of helminths. The material received at inspection of people and animals allows to distinguish G. of h separate ecological stations: tundra, taiga, steppe, desert, etc. The types having universal distribution as, e.g., the pinworm (Enterobius vermicularis), is much less.

The large role in G.'s formation is played by the nature of economic activity of the population h. So, the persons occupied with fishery and eating a large number of insufficiently thermally processed fish are surprised a diphyllobotriasis and an opisthorchosis more often than other groups of the population. Geohelminthoses (ascaridosis, trichuriasis, etc.) the faces occupied with vegetable growing are most affected; The Echinococcosis and an alveococcosis prevail usually among hunters and other groups of the population having continuous contact with dogs and which are engaged in cutting of skins of fur-bearing animals.

There are certain distinctions in the gelmintofayena of age groups of the population, but they generally carry quantitative, but not qualitative character. So, in the centers of an ascaridosis the prevalence of children is usually higher, than adults whereas in the centers of teniidoz, than a diphyllobotriasis and some other biohelminthoses the prevalence of adults is higher, than children.

As a result of economic activity of the person G. of h can change. E.g., flood of the droughty area in the absence of necessary precautionary measures can lead to formation of the new centers of geohelminthoses.

Of h in separate geographical zones of the USSR has the features. Nematodes — ascarids are widespread in the Central part of the European territory and to a lesser extent threadworms, sometimes trikhostrongilida, occasionally are found trichinellas, cestodes — bull and dwarfish tapeworms are more rare. To the North the invazirovannost ascarids and threadworms considerably decreases, and in a zone of the tundra from nematodes only pinworms are marked out. In the Arkhangelsk region, Karelian the ASSR and in the basin of Pechora among the population is registered a diphyllobotriasis. In the basin of Northern Dvina and in Karelian cases of an opisthorchosis are known to the ASSR. In the Baltic republics ascarids, threadworms, dwarfish and bull tapeworms, and on coast of the rivers a wide tape-worm come to light. In the Lithuanian SSR also cases of a trichinosis are noted. In Belarus, in addition to ascarids and threadworms, the centers of a trichinosis meet. To of h in Moldova it is generally presented by geohelminths — ascarids, threadworms, and from biohelminths — a bull tapeworm. In a forest zone of the Ukrainian SSR ascarids and threadworms are more often marked out, and in a steppe zone the dwarfish tapeworm and an echinococcus preobdadat. Sporadic everywhere bull and pork tapeworms, in some cases a strongyloidosis come to light. In the basins of Dnieper, Don and Collum the centers of an opisthorchosis and a diphyllobotriasis meet; in the Crimea, in addition to ascarids and threadworms, rather often an echinococcus. From nematodes ascarids, threadworms, strongiloida, and from cestodes — bull and much more rare dwarfish tapeworms are widespread in the Transcaucasian republics. In mountainous areas of Armenia and Azerbaijan it is revealed ny trikhostrongilida; also ankilostomida, generally nekator are characteristic of Azerbaijan and Georgia (western). Main types of helminths in Central Asia — dwarfish and bull tapeworms, are more rare an echinococcus, from nematodes in mountainous areas and zones of artificial irrigation — ascarids and threadworms. In the certain regions of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan there are centers of a dochmiasis. In the Kazakh SSR the tapeworm bull is registered, the centers of an opisthorchosis, and also cases of infection of the person with a fascioliasis are revealed. In the Urals and the Opisthorchosis and diphyllobotriases are widespread in Western Siberia; the last it is more in the basins of Yenisei and Lena. In Yakut and Buryat the ASSR meets a bull tapeworm, alveokokk. Gelmintofauna of the Far East is close to the gelmintofayena of the countries bordering on the USSR (the People's Republic of China, Japan, DPRK). Main type of helminths at the indigenous people (Nanais, Nivkhs, Ulchi, Udege) eating crude fish — trematodes of Metagonimus yokogawai, Clonorchis sinensis, Nanophyetus salmincola shikhobalowi, in isolated cases — a pulmonary trematode of Paragonimus ringeri, from cestodes — a tape-worm wide.

Abroad helminths especially intensively struck the population of the countries with tropical and subtropical climate. In the countries of Africa, to Yu. from the Sahara, along with the helminths characteristic of zones of a temperate climate (an ascarid, threadworms, tapeworms bull, pork and dwarfish, an echinococcus), ankilostomida (generally a nekator), strongiloida, a parasitic worm, filarias (a vukhereriya, onkhotserka, Loo, a dipetalonema), shistosoma are eurysynusic (urinogenital, intestinal). In the countries of Central and South America ascarids, threadworms, filarias (a vukhereriya, a mansonella), an intestinal shistosoma, strongiloida, ankilostomida (nekator), bull and dwarfish tapeworms, an echinococcus are registered (the last it is the widest in Uruguay, Chile, Argentina, Brazil).

On Yu. and Yu.-V. Aziya, on islands of Quiet and Indian oceans the population is intensively struck by ascarids, threadworms, ankilostomida, strongiloida, filarias (a vukhereriya, a brugiya). Besides, in India and the countries of the Middle East the population suffers from a dracunculosis (parasitic worm). Japan is eurysynusic the Japanese shistosoma, paragonimus, klonorkhis, metagonimus. In the Mongolian People's Republic an echinococcus and a bull tapeworm meets.

In G. of h the South of Europe geohelminths prevail. From biohelminths bull, pork, dwarfish tapeworms and an echinococcus, especially eurysynusic in Yugoslavia meet; in the countries of Central Europe — ascarids, threadworms, bull and pork tapeworms, an echinococcus. In yuzh. to the zone Germany and Switzerland cases of an alveococcosis are frequent; in Poland — a trichinella and the wide tape-worm characteristic also of Finland.

In the USA, in addition to ascarids, bull and pork tapeworms, an echinococcus, the trichinella, and in a zone of the Great Lakes — a wide tape-worm meets. In Canada and on Alaska widely are registered an echinococcus, alveokokk, a wide tape-worm and some other types, quite often trichinellas.

For assessment of prevalence of helminths among the population the following indicators characterizing G. by h are accepted: 1) the prevalence helminths of the population revealed by its active inspection and expressed percentage of number of inspected; 2) incidence of helminthoses — number of cases of all helminthoses or everyone among the population; the indicator is calculated, as a rule, on 100 000 population.

See also Biogelminta , Helminthoses , Helminthology , Geohelminths .

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H. P. Shikhobalova, E. S. Leykina.