From Big Medical Encyclopedia

GEJDENGEIN Rudolph (Heidenhain Rudolf Peter Heinrich, 1834 — 1897) — the German physiologist and the histologist. Got an education in high fur boots of Konigsberg (nowadays Kaliningrad), Halle, Berlin. Since 1854 — the assistant to department of physiology in Berlin un-those, from 1857 to 1859 the privatdozent in Halle, and since 1859 the prof. of physiology and histology in Breslau (nowadays Wroclaw).

The main works of R. Geydengayn are devoted to physiology of secretory processes and processes of absorption. Studying an uropoiesis in a kidney, he disproved the point of view existing earlier on processes of absorption as on purely physical. - also pointed the chemical phenomena to an essential role fiziol, activities of a renal epithelium; created the «secretory» theory of a producing a lymph; described adenomorfny and delomorfny cells of a stomach (Geydengayn's cell), rhabdoid cells of renal tubules (Geydengayn's columns); studied the mechanism of an innervation of digestive glands and showed that so-called secretory nerves cause allocation by glands of liquid fraction, and «trophic» cause chemical turning into to gland and change of concentration of substances of liquid fraction; established that process of secretion causes changes in a structure of secretory cells. For studying of secretion of a stomach in hron, experience offered a method of the isolated «small ventricle» which allowed it to reveal a number of the major patterns in secretory activity of a stomach. In 1856 Geydengayn established the dependence of effect of irritation of motor nerves at most the electric current attached to them later formulated by E. P a weather vane in the so-called law of excitement. R. Geydengayn found the centers which exert the braking impact on reduction of skeletal muscles in a cerebral cortex.

Many works of R. Geydengayn are devoted to a problem of heat generation in an organism. In them it is shown that the amount of the generated heat is in direct dependence on intensity of blood circulation, physical. loadings, intensity of irritation, caloric content of the consumed food, etc.

Works: Disquisitiones de nervis organisque centralibus cordis cordiumque ranae lymphaticorum, Berolini, 1854; Physiologische Studien, B., 1856; Mechanische Leistung, Warmeentwicklung und Stoffumsatz bei der Muskeltatigkeit, Lpz., 1864; Die Vivisection im Dienste der Heilkunde, Lpz., 1873; Der sogenannte tierische Magnetis-mus, Lpz., 1880; Physiologie und Stoffumsatz: Absonderungsvorgvorgange, Lpz., 1899.

Bibliography: O r ii t z n e r, Zum Andenken an Rudolf Heidenhain, Pfliigers Arch. ges. Physiol., Bd 72, S. 221, 1898; Rudolf Heidenhain (1834 — 1897), Minerva chir., p. 1118, 1960.

D. D. Ivanov.