GAYSKY Nikolay Akimovich (1884 — 1947) — the Soviet microbiologist, the epidemiologist and the immunologist, the doctor of medical sciences (1943). After the termination in 1912 medical f-that Novorossiysk (Odessa) un-that worked in diagnostic laboratory of the Samara zemstvo, taking active part in fight against epidemics of plague. After Great October socialist revolution «Microbe» worked in Saratov in-those. Since 1937 managed the Ashgabat antiplague station; since 1939 was the research supervisor Irkutsk antiplague in-that.
N. A. Gaysky is an author more than 40 scientific works, including monographs on an epizootology, epidemiology and immunology of plague and a tularemia, and also a toxoplasmosis. Its works about features of a course of infectious diseases and immunity at animals in a condition of hibernatation are of great importance. In 1915 N. A. Gaysky published the first work about the course of plague at gophers during hibernatation. It showed that features of physiology of gophers (Citellus pygmaeus) and Transbaicalian marmots (Arctomys bobac) exert accurately expressed impact on display of plague at them and on its activator. In 1931 — 1944 N. A. Gaysky (together with B. Ya. Elbert) proved that the suspension of the killed microbes of a tularemia does not create immunity and that only live with the weakened («residual») virulence, but strains, harmless to a Guinea pig and a rabbit, are capable to cause hyperimmunity. He received a strain of a microbe, from to-rogo the tulyaremiyny vaccine for immunization of the population prepares. The methods of attenuation (artificial decrease in pathogenicity and virulence) of the activator of a tularemia and cutaneous use of a tulyaremiyny vaccine developed by it provided widespread introduction of vaccination in protivoepid, to practician. In 1946 to N. A. Gaysky together with B. Ya. Elbert for development of a live tulyaremiyny vaccine and cutaneous method of its application awarded the State award USSR. «Sign of Honour» is awarded the order.
Works: Experiences of infection with plague of the gophers who are in a condition of hibernatation. Russian doctor, t. 14, No. 36, page 857, 1915; Toxoplasma nikanorovi n. sp. — new krovoparazit a steppe gopher, Citellus pygmaeus Pallas, Vestn, mikr., epid, and parazitol., t. 9, century 1, page 96, 1930 (sovm, with Zasu-hin D. N.); About the mechanism of an infection and immunity at an experimental tularemia, Zhurn, mikr., epid, and immun., No. 12, page 37, 42, 1941 (sovm, with Elberty B. Ya.); Receiving tulyaremiyny a virus vaccine and check of its immunogene properties, a yew., Irkutsk, 1943; Live tulyaremiyny vaccine, Zhurn, mikr., epid, and immun., No. 12, page 14, 1944; The Infection and immunity at the animals who are lying down in hibernatation, Izv. Irkutsk, protivochumn, in-that Siberia and Daln. East, t. 5, page 82, 1944.
Bibliography: Leshkovich L. I., etc. Nikolay Akimovich Gaysky, Zhurn, mikr., epid, and immun., No. 1, page 3, 1948, bibliogr.
B. Ya. Elbert.