GASTRIC JUICE

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

GASTRIC JUICE — product of activity of gastric glands and cover epithelium of a mucous membrane of a stomach.

Main patterns of department. pages were fullestly studied by I. P. Pavlov with sotr. in experiments.

Pure. the page represents colourless, inodorous slightly opalescent liquid with the weighed lumps of slime. It are a part salt to - that, enzymes, mineral substances, water, special physiologically active agents and slime. the page has acid reaction. Its daily quantity apprx. 2 l.

One of the major components Zh. the page is salt to - that. In 1897 I. P. Pavlov found release of solution salt to - you constant concentration obkladochny cells of gastric glands. Concerning the mechanism of education salt to - you various assumptions expressed. The general scheme of this process is accepted by most of authors nek-paradise, edges is as follows. In a membrane of intracellular tubules of obkladochny cells there is a specific carrier of hydrogen ions which are released from organic substrates, in particular of glucose, is preferential during metabolic transformations. The carrier, fosforilirovanny due to hydrolysis of ATP and loaded with hydrogen ions, transports them on an exterior surface of a membrane and after additional transformation gives in. page. At the same time ATP is an energy source, necessary for transfer of hydrogen ions against a concentration gradient (see. Transport of ions ). Free electrons in a cell by means of the special mechanism are transferred to oxygen, and ADF refosforilirutsya in the usual metabolic way. A necessary condition for intensive secretion salt to - you are intracellular breath. For lack of oxygen secretion sharply decreases.

In education salt to - you take part also bicarbonate buffer system preventing shifts of pH in the cosecreting cell in the alkaline party. Bicarbonates participate also in maintenance of ionic balance in a cell. Enzyme karboangidraza (see), present at obkladochny cells, provides regulation of this process. It is established that administration of inhibitor of a karboangidraza completely suppresses secretion salt to - you.

Specific mechanisms of these processes are a little studied. There are two hypotheses explaining them: according to the first, so-called oxidation-reduction hypothesis, secretion of hydrogen ions in obkladochny cells is directly connected with transfer of an electron through the Fe system ++ — Fe +++ on a final acceptor — molecular oxygen. The second hypothesis, so-called ATF-aznaya, explains transfer of hydrogen ions through an intracellular membrane with the specific ATP-ase stimulated by bicarbonate. This ATP-ase works like the similar enzyme in potassium sodium pompe operating in many cells. It connects hydrogen ions, at the same time hydrolyzes ATP to ADF, moves hydrogen to the outer side of a membrane, and ADF is recovered to AMF in a respiratory chain of mitochondrions. At the same time consider that intensive transfer of hydrogen ions is not the ATF-aznogo function of the pump of a primary type, and includes the accessory factors providing an associativity of process of secretion salt to - you and oxidizing exchange in mitochondrions.

Ions

Jonah of chlorine are also transported actively. Believe that on a basal surface of obkladochny cells in a membrane there is a mechanism operating as the neutral pump which is pumping over ions of chlorine from blood in a cell with simultaneous transfer of ions coal to - you in an opposite direction. Thanks to it chlorine comes against a concentration gradient to a cell and further in. page. Water, for a cut of a cell membrane easily of a pronitsayema, follows actively transported ions owing to osmotic relationship. Obkladochny cells emit the solution supporting apprx. 160 mekv/l HCl and 7 mekv/l neutral chloride in the form of KCl. This solution izotonichen blood. Concentration salt to - you at the time of education can be designated as primary acidity. A part to - you after allocation from ferruterous cells is neutralized by alkaline components and mukoproteida of secrets of other cells, hl. obr. mucous cells of cervical departments of gastric glands and cells of a cover epithelium.

Concentration of neutral chloride (ions of chlorine as a part of K C1 and NaCl) in a secret of acid-forming cells is very small, it is much higher in secrets of mucous and cover epithelial cells. Therefore inverse relation between neutral chloride and to - that is observed: the acidity of juice, the lower in it the content of neutral chloride and vice versa is higher. Content of the general chloride (chloride salt to - you and neutral chloride), on the contrary, is slightly higher in a secret of obkladochny cells, than in a secret of the cells which are not forming acid (100 mekv/l). In this regard intensive secretion salt to - you is followed also a nek-eye by increase of concentration in juice of the general chloride.

For quantitative assessment of contents in. by page salt to - you are defined total acid (the summary contents of all acid components Zh. page), free (dissociated) and connected (interacting with protein) salt to - that. Total acid. the page varies depending on force and character of an irritant, in an experiment can reach 0,58% of HCl; the maintenance of free HCl — 0,50%, and pH can equal 0,9 (in pure. page of dogs). Presence connected to - you, determined by a difference of the general and free, is caused by hl. obr. availability of the substances with buffer action of the proteinaceous nature neutralizing a part salt to - you.

Salt to - that. the page plays an important role in digestion. It creates conditions for autocatalytic activation of the proferments emitted with glands, causes necessary pH of the environment for effect of gastric proteinases on proteinaceous substrates. Under its influence proteins are to a certain extent denatured that facilitates their hydrolysis by enzymes. Together with proteolytic enzymes salt to - that reports bactericidal properties Zh. the page, slows down release gastrin (see), participates in reflex regulation of function of a pyloric press. Coming to intestines salt to - that. the page is the main factor of release secretin (see), stimulating secretory activity of a pancreas and liver, participates in release of some other hormones.

Enzymes

Main enzymes Zh. pages are pepsin (see) and gastriksinony the Main cells of gastric glands develop the inactive predecessor of pepsin — a pepsinogen which represents protein with a molecular weight apprx. 42 000, different from pepsin a number of properties, including stability in neutral and alkalescent solutions. The pepsinogen and other proferments collect in ferruterous cells in the form of secretory granules which at secretion are partially dissolved. At the same time proferments pass into a gleam of ferruterous tubes. Nek-roye the amount of proferments cosecretes not only during digestion, but also out of it, and also during hunger, than constant presence of a pepsinogen at gastric contents speaks. The pepsinogen is found also in blood, bile, urine. Activation of a pepsinogen proceeds in acid medium of a gastric juice autocatalytically; at the same time from a molecule of a pepsinogen the peptide fragments making 22% of its size on nitrogen separate. Fragment about a pier. weighing 3000, being in N-trailer situation in a molecule of a pepsinogen, after release plays a role of inhibitor of pepsin. The maximum activity of pepsin is shown in the range of pH from 1,5 to 2,5.

Other proteinase Zh. the page is the gastricsin representing protein about a pier. weighing 31 500. This enzyme on the substrate specificity is close to pepsin. Gastricsin is produced in the form of not active predecessor who is activated in the environment of acid gastric contents. V Zh. the page falls to its share about a quarter of all proteolytic activity.

The main difference of gastricsin from pepsin is its ability to split proteins in less acid medium: the optimum of its action is near pH 3,2. It plays essential fiziol, a role: as a result of neutralized effect of food on salt to - that in a stomach of pH of gastric contents in an initial stage of digestion can not reach optimum value for effect of pepsin. In this case the proteopepsis gastricsin thanks to the formed cleavage products of protein can promote release of gastrin in an antral part of a stomach and, therefore, participate in self-control of gastric secretion. Though gastricsin, like pepsin, influences the majority of proteins of food, it considerably differs on action on synthetic substrates. Besides, it has a bit different amino-acid structure, other electrophoretic mobility and differs in bigger heat stability and bigger stability in neutral solution.

V Zh. pages as well as in a mucous membrane of a stomach, contain in a small amount and other enzymes, close to pepsin. Pepsin B (parapepsin I) which is characterized by the expressed ability to split to gelatin and corresponding probably to enzyme a zhelatinaza, and also pepsin C (parapepsin II), apparently, corresponding to gastricsin is emitted in pure form. In addition, in drugs of pepsin and in contents of a stomach one more component a little different from pepsin is found — pepsin D, fiziol, the role to-rogo is not found out. V Zh. the page of young ruminants contains specific enzyme — rennin (see. Chymosin ), curdleing milk. At the person this enzyme is not found.

V Zh. the page is present a lipase (see. Lipases ), capable to split triglycerides in sharply acid medium. Though activity of a lipase. page it is small, it, apparently, has the known value in digestion, causing education already in a stomach of nek-ry quantity of cleavage products of triglycerides which then promote processes of emulsification of fat in intestines

. the page contains a significant amount of calcium — to 5 mg of %. It separates as a part of mucoid secrets (in particular, in insoluble gastric slime). Calcium is a product of secretion of cover epithelial and mucous cells of cervical departments of gastric glands. Its definition in. the page is used as an indicator of secretory activity of these two types of ferruterous cells. Availability of calcium in. the page as well as in saliva, apparently, has the known value for the enzymatic processes happening in intestines: it is shown that even very trace amounts of calcium influence the course of activation of trypsinogen enterokinase (see), increasing an exit of active trypsin (see) and reducing a share of inert protein.

V Zh. the page is present potassium at quantity apprx. 20 mg of %. Concentration is higher than it, than concentration of sodium, and surpasses the content of potassium in blood serum. Potassium is emitted both with obkladochny cells, and the cells which are not forming to - you. Its concentration in. the page changes a little and does not depend on acidity of juice.

Constant component. the page is ammonia. Concentration of ammonia Zh. the page is higher, than in blood serum, and makes 2 — 8 ml of %, increasing as a result of intensive activity of gastric glands. It is possible that it represents a product biochemical, the processes proceeding in gastric glands. V Zh. the page found also magnesium (sulfate and in very small amounts phosphate)

. the page contains the specific substances having important fiziol, value. First of all it is a so-called internal factor of Kasl (see. Kasla factors ), representing specific mukoproteid. The researches conducted with marked 57Co B12 vitamin showed that the internal factor is concentrated in obkladochny cells of gastric glands which, apparently, and cosecrete it. In a stomach this mukoproteid forms a complex with B12 vitamin thanks to what vitamin is protected from destruction in intestines and becomes capable to be soaked up actively in an ileal gut. V Zh. the page as well as in a mucous membrane of a stomach, is revealed fiziol, active agent of the glikoproteidny nature — gastron. It represents the specific agent who at introduction to blood in rather trace amount sharply slows down gastric secretion. Also presence is established in. page. lysozyme (see).

Except the listed connections, in. the page found some more biologically active agents possessing anticoagulative action, lipotropic activity and stimulating an erythrogenesis. As excretory function, in structure is inherent to a stomach. pages can enter end products of proteinaceous metabolism, some vitamins, the entered parenterally medicinal substances and so forth

Slime

the Constant component Zh. the page is slime. Distinguish two types of slime — insoluble and soluble.

Insoluble slime (insoluble mucin) — a product of activity of cells of a cover epithelium — contains mukoproteid, in structure to-rogo, in addition to protein, enters mucoitinsulphuric to - that, including acetylated geksozamin, sulfuric and glucuronic to - you, a nek-swarm quantity sialine to - you. After department slime connects by cells salt to - that and adsorbs pepsin Zh. page; slime contains also leukocytes and deskvamirovanny epithelial cells. It covers all inner surface of a stomach, is an important factor in protection of a mucous membrane of a stomach against the damaging effect of proteinases and salt to - you, and also chemical and mechanical influences of food. To a certain extent very slowly insoluble slime is digested pepsin in the presence of HCl. Nek-roye the quantity it and products of its disintegration can be in. page in the dissolved state.

Soluble slime (soluble mucin) is produced by hl. obr. mucous cells of a neck of gastric glands. It collects in them in the form of secretory granules which in the course of secretion are gradually dissolved in the liquid alkaline secret separated by these cells. Soluble mucin also represents mukoproteid, containing in the carbohydrate part preferential mucoitinsulphuric to - that. Observations over secretion of soluble mucin under the influence of various irritants showed that it separates in parallel with pepsin. In this regard by B. P. Babkin in 1960 it is suggested that the main cells of gastric glands, perhaps, also participate in formation of soluble mucin which cosecretes them or in the form of a complex with pepsin, or in a stand-at-ease in parallel with enzyme. Secretion of both types of slime is regulated by impulses of vagus nerves.

Some authors assume that the slime containing pepsin, enveloping dense food particles, promotes hydrolysis of proteins enzyme. Slime has buffer properties. So, 1 g of mucin connects apprx. 18 ml 0,1 N of solution salt to - you or 12 ml of similar solution of alkali. the page separates under the influence of the specific incentives operating during reception and digestion of food. At dogs during hunger secretion only of some components Zh is observed. page (without salt to - you), in particular a pepsinogen and gastric slime which department amplifies at periodic activity of a digestive tract. It is established that at the person at a number of diseases, especially at a peptic ulcer, plentiful continuous department of an active gastric juice and out of meal can be observed, including also night hours

. the page of characteristic structure, containing salt to - that, pepsin, mukoproteid and other components, is allocated only with fundal gastric glands which are located in the field of a bottom and a body of a stomach. Glands of peloric and cardial departments allocate the secret rich with mucin including a nek-swarm amount of pepsin, but free of salt to - you. This. the village has the smaller digesting ability. There are data that the pepsinogen partly coming to blood from fundal glands can pass from blood into a secret of peloric glands.

Structure. the page changes depending on the phases of gastric secretion, from character prevailing in each this phase of incentives. The experiments made on dogs showed that. the page, separated in a significant amount at irritation of vagus nerves, is characterized by high total acid, high content free salt to - you and the general chloride, are rather rich with soluble and insoluble slime, and also calcium, has very high concentration of pepsin and other proteinases. Unlike it, the juice which is produced at stimulation gastrin (see) and especially histamine (see), contains very few mucous substances, is 2 — 3 times less than calcium, it is very poor in enzymes though it is characterized by high content salt to - you and the general chloride. Also juice in the first and second phase of gastric secretion differs in the same features which only were less expressed.

Glands located on small and big curvature of a stomach allocate a little various on structure. page. The reflex phase is stronger expressed in activity of glands of small curvature, and the juice separated by them in this phase differs in a little bigger acidity and higher content of pepsin, than the juice produced in the same conditions by glands of big curvature.

At many patol, states structure. the page, its acidity sharply change. For detection of these changes investigate contents of a stomach, a cut at the person receive by means of the probe (see. Sounding of a stomach ) using trial breakfasts (see. Breakfast trial ), making an injection of a histamine (see. Histamine test ), and also tubeless methods.

For qualitative test free salt to - you use the indicators changing color at its presence. So, the red piece of paper of Congo moistened with a gastric juice becomes blue in the presence of free salt to - you. At addition to 1 ml of a gastric juice of 1 drop of 0,5% of spirit solution of dimethylamidoazobenzene in the presence of free salt to - you appear red coloring. Yellow and pinkish-yellow coloring indicates absence free salt to - you.

Quantitative definition of acidity

Quantitative definition of acidity is based on titration of a gastric juice by alkali using indicators which depending on pH of the environment change coloring. The indicator on total acid — phenolphthalein in acid medium remains colourless, in alkaline — is painted in pink color. The indicator dimethylamidoazobenzene in the presence of free salt to - you are painted in bright red color, in its absence gives yellow or orange coloring. Alizarinsulfonovokisly natron gives weak-yellow coloring in acid medium, upon transition to alkaline — violet; in the presence of this indicator all acid valencies, except for connected salt to - you ottitrovyvatsya. In laboratory practice the following methods are applied.

Mikhaelis's method. Add 1 — 2 drop of phenolphthalein and 1 — 2 drop of dimethylamidoazobenzene to 5 ml of the filtered gastric juice. Note the level of alkali in the burette and begin to titrate at constant stirring. Then note the level of alkali upon transition of initial red color in flesh-colored, the level of alkali at emergence of citreous color and the level of alkali upon transition of coloring to resistant pink color. The difference between the second and first levels corresponds to quantity free salt to - you. The amount of alkali which went for titration to the level corresponding to an arithmetic average between the third and fourth levels is equal to all salt to - those (the sum free and connected). Quantity connected salt to - you define by subtraction of figure free salt to - you from figure, equal all salt to - those. A difference between total acid and the sum free and connected salt to - you are equal to an acid residue (organic to - you and kisloreagiruyushchy phosphates).

Tepfer's method. In 2 glasses pour 5 ml of gastric contents. In the first portion determine total acid and free salt to - that by Mikhaelis's method.

In the second portion add 1 drop of alizarinsulfonovokisly sodium. Titrate before transition of yellow coloring to weak-violet and calculate the amount of alkali which went for titration. In the presence of this indicator all kisloreagiruyushchy substances, except for connected salt to - you are neutralized, a cut learn quantity by subtraction of amount of alkali, gone for titration of the second portion, from figure of total acid.

Multiplication by 20 all sizes give calculations in relation to 100 ml of gastric contents in both methods. The received digital values express in titratsionny units. If at addition in gastric contents of alizarinsulfonovokisly sodium there is a violet coloring at once, draw a conclusion about absence free and connected salt to - you.

In the presence of a small amount of a gastric juice acidity is determined by method of titration with three indicators in one portion in the microchemical way, in the presence of considerable impurity in it (blood, bile, food) — way of a rn-metriya. If in a gastric juice is absent free salt to - that, so-called deficit salt to - you is defined.

For assessment of a kislotovydeleniye define not only acidity of juice, but also absolute value of products salt to - you for a certain interval of time — an output salt to - you which is expressed in milligrams (mg) or milliekvivalenta (mekv) (1 mekv sootvetstvuyet36,5 in mg of HCl). The output can be calculated for total acid, free and connected salt to - you, and also for different phases of secretion (basal, stimulated and so forth). For calculation of size of a kislotovydeleniye special tables, formulas and nomograms are offered.

At a research of zymoplastic function of a stomach in. the page is defined pepsin by Pyatnitsky's methods (see. Pepsin ) and Tugolukova (see. Uropepsin ). For definition of activity of pepsin and a pepsinogen Anson's method — Chernikova is used (see. Anson-Chernikov method ).

Nek-roye an idea of secretory function of a stomach is given by a research of the chlorides determined by Folgard's method.

For studying of proteinaceous structure. the page is used a method electrophoresis (see). Definition of Castle's intrinsics by Glass and Boyd's method is of practical interest.

High-molecular substances Zh. pages decide on the help of paper electrophoresis. From several options of a method the simplified option is especially widespread:. the page is exposed to dialysis at first against water, and then against solution carbowax. At the same time. the page at the same time concentrates by 20 times. Such juice in the presence of the borate buffer is centrifuged, and nadosadochny liquid is applied on paper strips. After an electrophoresis of a strip are dried up at t ° 100 — 110 °, are painted by dye (most often amidoblack), are washed out by methanol, are dried up on air and densitometrirutsya. On the anode party of an elektroforegramma 4 — 5 fractions from which the most mobile corresponds to pepsin, and some other — to mukoproteida are found. page. On the cathode party there are 4 — 6 fractions, the corresponding hl. obr. to products of peptic splitting of the albumine passing into juice from blood.

Increase in acidity of contents of a stomach (see. Hyperacidity ) it is connected with the strengthened secretion. page, with insufficient neutralization salt to - you alkaline components of gastric contents, with a delay of evacuation of gastric contents in a duodenum. More often it is observed at a peptic ulcer, especially at an ulcer of a duodenum (see. Zollingera-Ellisona syndrome ).

At hypochlorhydrias (see) level free salt to - you after use of a trial breakfast in gastric contents are lower the 20th wedge, units (1 ml 0,1 N of NaOH solution on 100 ml of contents); at achlorhydrias (see) free salt to - that absolutely is absent. In normal conditions total acid of contents after a trial breakfast on average equals 65, and free salt to - that is the 40th wedge, to units at men and is slightly lower at women. Decrease in acidity of gastric contents depends hl. obr. from reduction of concentration salt to - you in. page which in this case more than is normal, gets divorced other components of contents of a stomach. Also strengthened neutralization free salt to - you components of contents of a stomach is possible. In other cases gastric glands (obkladochny cells) can lose completely ability to cosecrete salt to - that. According to it distinguish the seeming and true achlorhydria. At the first free salt to - that is not found in contents of a stomach after a trial breakfast, but appears after an injection of a histamine, i.e. under the influence of stronger and directly operating on gastric glands stimulator. At a true achlorhydria free salt to - that is absent also after an injection of a histamine. Content of pepsin at these states decreases, as a rule, in small degree. If it also sharply falls or pepsin in contents absolutely is absent, speak about akhiliya of a stomach (see).

Hypo - and an achlorhydria are a symptom of a disease though are in some cases observed also at almost healthy people. The hypochlorhydria is characteristic of acute inflammatory diseases of the liver and gall bladder, disturbances of food expressed to a vitamin deficiency, both forms of an achlorhydria — for hron, gastritis, a carcinoma of the stomach, and the lowered acidity in these cases often is followed by the strengthened formation of gastric slime.

The true achlorhydria and a gastric akhiliya are observed at pernicious anemia when not only education to - you and enzymes, but also secretion of an internal factor of Kasl responsible for absorption of polyneuramin is broken 12 .

At individual diseases (hypertrophic gastritis, some forms of a carcinoma of the stomach) there is strengthened transudation of albumine from blood in a gastric cavity: in. pages are present cleavage products of albumine proteinases or in the conditions of the lowered proteolytic activity not changed albumine.

See also Stomach , physiology.

A gastric juice as drug

as medicine use drugs natural and artificial. page.

Natural. page (Succus gastricus naturalis) — the secret of gastric glands of dogs preserved 0,03 — 0,04% salicylic to - that. For its receiving impose a fistula of a stomach across Basov to young dogs. Later 8 — 9 weeks make operation of an esophagotomy (incomplete section of a gullet in a neck). In 3 — 4 weeks of a dog become donors. page which is received by I. P. Pavlov's method in response to sham feeding. The secret collected in a sokopriyemnik is filtered, subject deodorizations, added to it salt to - that and sterilized by means of bacterial filters.

Ready natural. page — transparent and slightly opalescent liquid of acid taste, with a slight specific smell, pH 0,8 — 1,0. Total acid in terms of salt to - that 0,5 — 0,54%. Contains 0,5% free salt to - you. The content of pepsin in drug determined by ability. page to hydrolyze hemoglobin, there have to be not less than 0,02% at release and not less than 0,005% at the end of a period of validity. In addition to pepsin, natural. the page contains enzymes rennin and a lipase, vitamins, an antianemic factor of Kasl, various salts and microelements.

Are applied also natural. page of horses — Ekvin (Succus gastricus naturalis «equinum») received by a besfistulny method by means of the nosozheludochny probe or the fistula imposed on the isolated abomasum (on the third part or a half of all stomach).

In medical practice finds application and artificial. page — the water extract of a mucous membrane of a stomach of pigs acidified salt to - that and preserved by chloroform. Content of pepsin in it not less than 0,004%, total acid within 0,54 — 0,57%.

Drugs Zh. pages exert the normalizing impact on secretory and motor activity went. - kish. a path, improve a functional condition of a pancreas, biliary tract, the hemopoietic system, show bactericidal action, stimulate regenerative processes.

The main indication to use. pages are diseases of a digestive tract with insufficiency of secretory activity of ferruterous formations of a stomach (hron, hypo - and anacid gastritises, an akhiliya, exhaustion and hypotrophic states at children).

Topical administration. the page in a combination with hypertensive solution of sodium chloride promotes more bystry clarification of wounds from necrotic masses, to fluidifying of exudate, improvement of its outflow, accelerates reparative processes. the page is used also at treatment of mecotic uretrit and colpitises. Under influence. pages stop or considerably the dispeptic phenomena decrease, activity of a stomach and intestines is normalized, appetite improves, the content in blood of hemoglobin, erythrocytes and reticulocytes increases.

Appoint. page inside the adult on 1 — 2 table, l., to children under 3 years — on 0,5 — 1 chayn, l., from 3 to 6 years — on 1 dessertspoon, from 7 to 14 years — on 1 dessert — 1 table, l. 2 — 3 times a day.

Drugs of natural. pages are packed in glass sterile bottles with a capacity of 100 and 150 ml, artificial — 100 and 250 ml. Store all drugs in the dry, protected from light place at a temperature from 2 to 10 °. Period of validity of 6 months. At storage in the warm place drugs quickly lose the activity.



Bibliography: Babkin B. P. Secretory mechanism of digestive glands, L., 1960; Biochemical methods of a research in clinic, under the editorship of A. A. Pokrovsky, page 197, M., 1969; Ginodman L. M. and Solovyova T. A. Definition of pepsin and a gastrikein in a gastric juice of the person, Vopr. medical chemical, t. And, century 2, page 87, 1965; To about r about t ý-to about G. F. Release of enzymes glands of a stomach, Tashkent, 1971; Linar E. Yu. Kislotoobrazovatelnaya function of a stomach is normal also pathologies, Riga, 1968; Mosolov V. V. Proteolytic enzymes, page 100, etc., M., 1971; Pavlov I. P. Complete works, t. 2, book 2, M. — L., 1951; Pokrovsky A. A., Gapparov M. M. and Levin L. G. About a role of succinate in power supply of secretion of hydrochloric acid in mucous a stomach, Fiziol, zhurn. USSR, t. 59, No. 10, page 1567, 1973; Forte J. G. Hydrochloric acid secretion by gastric mucosa, in book: Membranes and ion transp., ed. by E. E. Bittar, v. 3, p. Ill L. — N.Y., 1971; Gastric secretion, ed. by G. Sachs a. o., N. Y. — L., 1972; Glass G. B. Proteins, mucosubstances, and biologically active components of gastric secretion, Advanc, clin. Chem., v. 7, p. 235, 1964; Sachs G. o. Redox and ATP in acid secretion, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., v. 264, p. 456, 1975, bibliogr.

G. K. Shlygin; A. I. Briskin (pharm.)> E. V. Markova (wedge.).

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