GASSER Herbert

From Big Medical Encyclopedia
GASSER Herbert

GASSER Herbert (Gasser Herbert Spencer, 1888 — 1963) — the American physiologist and the pharmacologist, the doctor of science of a number of high fur boots of the USA, honourable doctor Svobodny un-that in Brussels. In 1913 ended un-t of the State of Wisconsin, and in 1915 medical f-t in un-those J. Gopkins.

Since 1915 worked at university of Washington in St. Louis. Since 1921 — professor of pharmacology of the same university. Since 1931 — professor of Physiology medical f-that Kornelsky un-that (New York). From 1935 to 1953 (before resignation) — the director Rokfellerovskogo in-that in New York.

G. Gasser published 116 scientific works devoted to hl. obr. to questions of an electrophysiology. It began scientific activity with studying of mechanisms of a blood coagulation, development of wound shock and action on an organism of some chemical warfare agents, in particular a lewisite.

G. Gasser one of the first together with J. Erlanger wrote down electric potentials of action of peripheral nerves. A number of researches of G. Gasser is devoted to studying of dependence of speed of carrying out excitement in nerve fibrils from their diameters and other anatomic features, influence of prelums of nerves and impact of cocaine on carrying out excitement in thin and thick nervous trunks, the bioelectric phenomena in a nerve at tetanic irritation; to identification of participation of various nerve fibrils in formation of feeling of pain. He developed classification of nerve fibrils of mammals. For Electrophysiologic researches of nerve fibrils of mammal G. Gasser together with J. Erlanger it is conferred the Nobel Prize (1944), and Association of the American doctors it is awarded by the medal Cobra (1954).

G. Gasser was a member of the American association of progress in science, the honorary member Korolevskogo about-va (Edinburgh), the member Korolevskogo about-va (London), American physiological about-va, American about-va pharmacology and experimental therapy, the American association of neurologists, Garveevsky about-va, Physiological about-va Great Britain.

Works: The significance of prothrombin and of free and combined thrombin in blood-serum, Amer. J. Physiol., v. 42, p. 378, 1916—1917; The blood volume changes in shock and methods by which they may be modified, J. MO. med. Ass., v. 15, p. 233, 1918; A study of the action currents of nerve with the cathode ray oscillograph, Amer. J. Physiol., v. 62, p. 496, 1922 (sovm, with Erlanger J.); The dynamics of muscular contraction, Proc. roy. Soc., B, v. 96, p. 398, 1924—1925 (sovm, with Hill A. V.); R61e played by sizes of constituent fibers of nerve trunk in determining form of its action potential wave, Amer. J. Physiol., v. 80, p. 522,1927 (sovm, with Erlanger J.); Electrical signs of nervous activity, L. — Oxford, 1937 (sovm, with Erlanger J.).

Bibliography: Herbert Spencer Gasser, N. Y. — L., 1964, bibliogr.

V. G. Zilov.