GARVEY William

From Big Medical Encyclopedia
GARVEY, Harvey William

GARVEY, Harvey William (Harvey William, 1578 — 1657) — the English doctor, the physiologist and the embryologist, one of founders of scientific physiology and embryology. In 1597 ended medical f-t in Cambridge, and in 1602 un-t in Padua (Italy) and gained the diploma of the Dr. of medicine Paduan un-that.

Having returned to England, gained the second diploma — Dr.s of medicine Cambridge un-that. In London was professor of department of anatomy, physiology and surgeries, the chief physician and the surgeon of hospital of St. Varfolomey. Since 1607 the member of Royal board of doctors.

U. Garvey disproved the hypothetical constructions created by his predecessors and opened fundamental laws of blood circulation. Having measured the size of systolic volume, frequency of reductions of heart in unit of time and total quantity of blood, he specified: «in all body of its no more than 4 pounds as I was convinced of it on a sheep». Based on it, U. Garvey claimed that the doctrine K dominating during 1500. Galen, according to Krom all new and new portions of blood inflow to heart from the bodies making it (went. - kish. a path and a liver) from heart on veins and arteries irrevocably to go to all body organs where it completely is consumed, is wrong. It allowed return of the same blood to heart through a closed circuit. U. Garvey explained isolation of a circle of blood circulation with direct bonding of arteries and veins through the smallest tubules; these tubules — capillaries — were opened for M. Malpigi only four years later after U. Garvey's death. He the first began to attribute to a liver a role of protecting, barrier body.

Ideas of functions of the blood circulatory system developed at At. Garvey by 1615, however its classical work «Exercitatio anatomica de motu cordis et sanguinis in animalibus» («An anatomic research about the movement of heart and blood at animals») was published only in 1628. After its publication U. Garvey took the most severe battering and charges from contemporaries and church for infringement of authority of ancient scientists and the religious and idealistic outlook dominating then in natural sciences. Estimating value of opening of U. Garvey for development of science, I. P. Pavlov wrote: «Garvey's work not only rare value fruit of his mind, but also feat of his courage and self-rejection».

U. Garvey is fairly considered one of founders and creators of modern embryology. In 1651 there was his second book — «Exercitationes de generatione animalium» («Researches about origin of animals»). In drink results of long-term researches of embryonic development of invertebrates and vertebrate animals were generalized (birds and mammals) and the conclusion is drawn that «egg is the general first principle of all animals» («Ekh of ovo omnia»). Come from eggs not only animal yaytserodyashchy, but also viviparous — mammals and the person. This statement of U. Garvey was really ingenious guess since he could not know about existence of the ovum of mammals opened only 175 years later Russian scientific K. M. Ber yet. To the idea about egg of mammals U. Garvey came as a result of observations over very early stages of the germ covered with chorion. The impossibility to use a microscope for studying of early stages of development of a germ was the cause of a number of the wrong conclusions of U. Garvey. However the major actual opening and some representations of U. Garvey in this area did not lose value until recently. He disproved the idea of spontaneous self-generation, claiming that even so-called cherverodyashchy animals have eggs; finalized the place in egg where formation of a germ begins («scar», or cicatricula). U. Garvey was an opponent of the theory preformizm (see), considering that organisms develop from egg «by addition of the parts separating one by one» and entered a concept epigenesis (see). Its researches on embryology of mammals were the largest incitement for development of theoretical and practical obstetrics.

Works: Opera omnia, Collegio Medicorum Londinensi edita, Londini, 1766; The Anatomic research o the movement of heart and blood at animals, the lane from Latinas., prod., the 2nd, L., 1948.

Bibliography: Bulls K. M. William Garvey and opening of blood circulation, M., 1957; Gutner N. History of opening of blood circulation, M., 1904; Pavlov I. P. Complete works, t. 5, page 279, t. 6, page 425, M. — L., 1952; Semenov G. M. William Garvey's value in the history of studying of ontogenesis of animals and the person, Tashkent, 1928; G a s-t i g 1 i o n i A. History of medicine, p. 515, N. Y., 1941; K e e 1 e K. D. William Harvey, L., 1965, bibliogr.; P a g e 1 W. a. W i n d e r M. Harvey and the «modern» concept of disease, Bull. Hist. Med., v. 42, p. 496, 1968, bibliogr.