GANTT William

From Big Medical Encyclopedia
GANTT, Ghent William

GANTT, Ghent William (Gantt William Horsley, sort. in 1892) — the American physiologist. Graduated from the university in Virginia in 1920. In 1922 was in the Soviet Russia as the employee of the American MACAW organization («The American administration of the help»). In Leningrad got acquainted with I. P. Pavlov and his doctrine about conditioned reflexes. Having been fond of this new field of physiology, U. Gantt studied it from 1925 to 1929 in Ying-those experimental medicine (Leningrad). Upon return to the USA U. Gantt organized in 1930 in Baltimore at J. Gopkins's university laboratory of I. P. Pavlov and headed it till 1958. In the subsequent, till 1973, was an employee of this laboratory. Since 1973 — the prof. of psychiatric clinic of university in Maryland. U. Gantt's laboratory came out more than 200 works devoted to a research of mechanisms of a conditioned reflex, the reasons of development of neurotic states, especially so-called vegetative neurosises, the annex of an uslovnoreflektorny method to the analysis of functional pathology of cardiovascular system, and also I. P. Pavlov's doctrine to development of preventive psychiatry. On the basis of this laboratory the American «Pavlovsk society» is organized. At. Gantt as the supporter objective and scientific fiziol, approach to studying of mental diseases and vegetative neurosises studies neurohumoral mechanisms of regulation of action of the heart and a tone of vessels, and also questions of a shizokinez in recent years.

U. Gantt and his employees consider the Pavlovsk doctrine about century of N of as the base for the objective analysis of mental diseases. He actively opposes subjective methods of a freydizm which are widely accepted in the American medicine. In 1937 U. Gantt published work on stories of the Russian medicine, in 1944 — the monograph devoted to questions of physiology of century of N of («Experimental bases of neurotic behavior»). «Lectures about work of big hemispheres», and also K. M. Bykov's works «Bark and internals» and A. R. Luriya «About the nature of conflict reactions» are translated to them into English language of the book of I. P. Pavlov «Twenty years' experience of objective studying of higher nervous activity (behavior) of animals, conditioned reflexes».

U. Gantt consists the member of many American and foreign science foundations, and also the international organization for studying of a brain (IBRO). He is the president of the American psychoneurological association (1960), International board on Higher nervous activity (1960).

Works: A medical review of Soviet Russia, L., 1928; Russian medicine, N. Y., 1937; Autonomic responses in differential diagnosis of organic and psychogenic psychoses, Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chic.), tv. 70, p. 778, 1953 (sovm, with other); Autonomic conditioning, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., v. 117, p. 132, 1964.

Bibliography: Kvass D. G. and Fedorov Grotto A. K. Physiological school of I. P. Pavlov, page 84, L., 1967, bibliogr.

P. K. Anokhin.