GANNUSHKIN Pyotr Borisovich

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GANNUSHKIN Pyotr Borisovich

GANNUSHKIN Pyotr Borisovich (1875 — 1933) — the Soviet psychiatrist, one of founders of the first Soviet psychiatric school and the Soviet social psychiatry. S. S. Korsakov and V. P's pupil. Serbian. In 1898 ended medical f-t Moscow un-that. In 1904 protected dokt, a yew, about acute paranoia. Since 1904 — the privatdozent Moscow un-that at department of sincere diseases. In 1911 left Moscow un-t together with other scientists in protest at repressions of the minister of education Kasso. From 1908 to 1914 — the intern of the Alekseevsky

insane hospital in Moscow (nowadays hospital of P. P. Kashchenko). Since 1914 — the intern of the Petrograd sea hospital. In 1918 returned in Moscow un-t where headed 15 years department of psychiatry.

P. B. Gannushkin was an active supporter of the kliniko-nosological direction in psychiatry, including in studying of boundary forms of mental diseases. He carried out strict differentiation between psychogenic reactions, progreduated processes and constitutional anomalies of the personality and was a creator of the concept of so-called small psychiatry. In the monograph «Clinic of Psychopathies, Their Statics, Dynamics, Systematics» (1933) and some other works he pays special attention to studying of pathological characters, proves need of clinical studying of psychopathies for dynamics and unity with Wednesday, for the first time gives the description of their options (phases, or episodes, reactions and development), and also introduces the idea that the favorable social environment prevents emergence of psychopathies and does possible their compensation.

P. B. Gannushkin combined scientific work with big public work. Being a board member of the Russian union of psychiatrists, he created and headed the Modern Psychiatry (1907 — 1917) magazine, in Krom questions of public psychiatry, the organization of mental health services, the legislation, work of insane hospitals were widely taken up, interests mentally of patients and employees of mental health facilities were protected. The advanced doctors - the psychiatrists of that time who made future asset of the Soviet psychiatrists cooperated in the magazine.

P. B. Gannushkin's clinic became scientific center on development of problems of clinical and social psychiatry. In the lectures and in the brochure «Psychiatry, its tasks, the volume of teaching» (1924) he raised a question of social psychiatry as to new discipline. He precisely outlined a circle of problems and organizational problems of social psychiatry, accurately formulated its theoretical bases and a method: combination of the individual and clinical analysis and diagnosis to sociological researches and achievement of unity of the social and individual and clinical points of view.

P. B. Gannushkin was an initiator of development of extra hospital mental health services. Under its management the system of psychiatric clinics began to develop as the new form of the state organization to lay down. - professional, service, the social device and rehabilitation mentally sick.

Under the leadership of P. B. Gannushkin psychiatric clinic Moscow un-that was school of training of the Soviet psychiatrists. More than 20 pupils of this school became heads of research in-t and the manager. departments.


Works: Acute paranoya (paranoia acuta), clinical party of a question, M., 1904; Resonant insanity and reasoning, Zhurn, neuropath, and psikhiat., book 3-4, page 627, 1905; Psychasthenic character, Sovr, psikhiat., No. 12, page 433, 1907; Chosen works, M., 1964, bibliogr.

Bibliography: Galachyan A., P. B; Gannushkin and the current state of psychiatry (to the 30 anniversary from the date of death), Zhurn, a neuropath, and psikhiat., t. 63, Kya 3, page 443, 1963; Gersha A. G., P. B. Gannushkin, M., 1975, bibliogr.; Frumkin I, the Item and 3 and in and l I am nanosecond to and y I. Ya. Памяти П. Б. Ганнушкина (1875—1933), Zhurn. neuropath. and psikhiat, t. 69, No. 11, page 1726, 1969.

D.E. Melikhov.

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