GANGLIOSIDES (sialoglikolipida) — a class of the complex glycolipids which are contained preferential in ganglionic cells of nervous tissue from where received the name; are found also in erythrocytes, blood serum, tissues of a liver, spleen, mammary gland, etc. In G.'s cells are localized generally in plasma membranes.
Molecules G. are formed by the remains of fatty acid (at vertebral 80 — 90 their % it is presented stearin to - that), amino alcohol, sphingosine (see), glucose, galactoses, a hexosemine — N-atsetilglyukozamina or N-atsetilgalaktozamina and sialic acids (see) — N-atsetil-or N-glikolilneyraminovoy to - that. The name G. is defined by number of the remains of the sialic acids entering its molecule (e.g., mono - di - and trisialogangliozida).
Biol, G.'s role is defined by their participation in implementation of intercellular contacts, and also the fact that they are peculiar receptors for toxins (e.g., toxins of tetanus, cholera, etc.) and serotonin. Specificity of receptor function depends on structure of.
Some morbid conditions at the person are followed by change of contents and structure G. Tak, at hereditary gangliozidoza in tissues of the patient there is G.'s adjournment: at a disease Teja — the Saxophone (see. Amaurotic idiocy ), Sandgoff's disease and youthful Gm2-to a gangliozidoza N-atsetilgalaktozaminil - N - atsetilneyraminillaktoziltseramid collects, at a generalized gangliozidoz and a disease of Derry collects galaktozil-N - ацетилгалактозаминил-N-ацетилнейраминиллактозилцерамид. Change of contents and G.'s structure happens as well at a malignancy of fabric.
Aberrations in contents and G.'s structure are connected with disturbances in activity of enzymes, e.g. beta galactosidases (KF3.2. 1.23) at a generalized gangliozidoz or beta galaktozaminidazy at a disease Teja — the Saxophone and Sandgoff's disease. See also Cerebrosides .
Bibliography: Avrova N. F. and Obukhova E. L. Modern ideas of gangliosides, Usp. sovr, biol., t. 79, century 1, page 33, 1975, bibliogr.; Mahler G. and Kordes Yu. Fundamentals of biological chemistry, the lane with English, page 410, M., 1970, bibliogr.; O'V of i e n J. S. and. lake of Ganglioside storage diseases, Fed. Proc., v. 30, p. 956, 1971, bibliogr.
E. V. Dyatlovitskaya.