GAMES in physical culture and sport — one of means of fizivesky education. And. conditionally divide on mobile and sports.
Outdoor games are an important part physical. education, hl. obr. children. The movements at mobile And. (a lapta, torches, ball games, elements of fight, a game on a training of attention, etc.) are carried out according to the established rules, do not demand special preparation, can be carried out in various conditions with large or smaller number of participants.
The first imitative game actions are observed at the child after development of locomotory acts by it (walking, run, jumps, etc.) - At children of preschool age (3 — 7 years) mobile And. the needs for the movements are the main form of manifestation biol. At children of younger and advanced school age mobile And. are used on this basis and as means comprehensive physical. education, increase in operability of an organism and its resilience adverse physical. to environmental factors. Need of bystry reaction to the changing game situation promotes elaboration of the bystry coordinate movements, development of a musculoskeletal system, functional improvement of a row fiziol, systems of an organism. Mobile And., especially carried out in the fresh air, exert beneficial effect on funkts, a condition of c. and. page, cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Mobile And., carried out by school students during a big change, promote removal of the intellectual exhaustion and a static stress caused by need to keep a certain pose for a long time. Indicators physical. than working capacity and the general nonspecific immune resistance is higher at those children whose day regimen daily joins various mobile
I. U of adults mobile And. have auxiliary value and are used for active recreation, in training occupations by separate sports and as an element to lay down. physical cultures.
Sports — competitive And., consisting in an antagonism of two parties and carried out by uniform official rules. Treat sports badminton (see), basketball (see), water polo (see), volleyball (see), towns (see), soccer (see), tennis (see), hockey (see) etc. In comparison with simple mobile And. in them elements of a competition, aspiration inherent in sport to a victory are more brightly expressed; maintenance and technical policy strokes are more difficult owing to what physical are of great importance for participants the general. readiness, a systematic training — individual and collective.
Continuous change of situations in process And. forces participants to react to actions of opponents and partners immediately. Thanks to it sports And. it is more, than other physical. exercises in which the sequence of movements is in advance defined (e.g., in gymnastics) develop determination, ability to be guided quickly in a situation. Need to follow the established rules and a game for team cultivate discipline, ability to work in collective, feeling of mutual revenue at players. Various variations and combinations of movements promote development of an animal force, motor reaction (speed), coordination of movements (dexterity).
Rather large volume and duration of muscular work at systematic occupations sports And. improve regulatory activity of a nervous system, increase functionality of bodies of blood circulation, breath, etc. Everyone sports And. has features of impact on an organism; in this respect they can be divided into three groups conditionally.
The first group — badminton, volleyball, table tennis — is characterized by a variety of movements that promotes development of coordination of motive function. Rather small physical. loading in connection with limitation of movement of the players who are (especially beginning) on the platform reduces value of these And. for development physical. endurance. Owing to these features these And. are widely available to the people of both sexes different in age and physical. to preparation. According to medical indications these And. apply also in to physiotherapy exercises (see). It is possible to carry tennis to the same group of sports. Despite relative complexity of receptions, tennis thanks to an opportunity to dose loading it is available to men and women at any age, including elderly.
The second group — basketball, handball — differs from previous in a big variety and intensity of movements (bystry run, jumps, etc.). And. this group are available to persons of both sexes 40 years since abundance of high-speed and power movements, bystry speed is created high by physical are not more senior. loading.
The third group — soccer, ice hockey, water polo, rugby, etc. These And. in connection with a variety and complexity the movement, the methods of power fight allowed by rules it is, more, than And. other groups, develop skeletal muscles and an animal force, the general physical. endurance. Big physical. loading does And. this group preferential available only to young men is also demanded good by physical. preparation.
Training of children in the elementary elements of sports with a ball can be begun with 7 — 8-year age, but their wider use in physical. education generally becomes possible only from teenage age. In connection with considerable physical. loading at a training and competitions on sports And. it is obligatory medical control (see). The possibility of injuries relatively increases in that sports And., which rules allow elements of power fight against the opponent for a ball (soccer, hockey, etc.). The prevention of injuries requires strict observance of rules I., prevention of dangerous receptions, use of defensors (guards in soccer, helmets, gloves, kneecaps in hockey, etc.).
Bibliography Byleeva L., Korotkov I. and Yakovlev V. Outdoor games, M., 1974. bibliogr.; Geselevich V. A. Medical reference book of the trainer, M., 1976; Korotkov I. M. Mobile igoa in sports activities, M., 1971, bibliogr.; Minkh A. A. Sketches on hygiene of physical exercises and sport, M., 1976; Sports, under the editorship of P. A. Chumakov, M., 1966.
N. A. Bunkin, A. G. Sukharev, S. V. Khrushchev.