From Big Medical Encyclopedia

GAMBUSIA (Gambusia affinis, G. a. holbrooki) — viviparous small fish this. Poeciliidae of group of karpozuby. G.'s homeland — North America. In the USSR it is delivered from Italy in 1924 by doctor N. P. Rukhadze; it is successfully acclimatized in the southern regions of the country. G.'s females of light brown coloring, sometimes with small dark specks on all body, 5 — 7 cm long. Males almost twice less also differ in a structure of a proctal fin (fig.) turned into copulative body — gonopodiya. Puberty comes on the second month of life. The female gives up to 6 dung a year, on 30 — 80 and more whitebaits in everyone.

Gambusia affinis: above — a female, below — a male with a long proctal fin.

Occupy various fresh and slightly saltish reservoirs with standing or slowly current water. G. eats small water organisms, including larvae and dolls of mosquitoes. Gluttony, endurance, easy adaptability to a reservoir and big fertility allow to use G. for fight against mosquitoes. In a reservoir release 2 — 3-month-old small fishes in the ratio 1 male on 10 — 30 females at the rate of 10 — 15 small fishes on 1 m 2 water surface. It is better to carry out settling in the spring. In fishery grounds of G. can do harm, eating whitebaits of useful fishes.

See also Biological methods of controlling .

S. N. Zarechnaya.