GAMALEYA Nikolay Fedorovich

From Big Medical Encyclopedia
GAMALEYA Nikolay Fedorovich

GAMALEYA Nikolay Fedorovich (1859 — 1949) — the Soviet microbiologist and the epidemiologist; honorary member of Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1940), academician of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences (1945), honored worker of science (1934), winner of the State award USSR (1943). Member of the CPSU. In 1880 ended Novorossiysk un-t (Odessa), and in 1883. Army medical college. Having returned to Odessa, worked in hospital for O. O. Mochutkovsky. In 1886 at L. Pasteur studied a problem of rage. The same year, having returned to Odessa, based together with I. I. Mechnikov and Ya. Yu. Bardakh the first in Russia bacterial, the station and for the first time in Russia performed vaccination of people against rage. In 1888 — 1891 worked in Paris for L. Pasteur, Bouchard (Ch. J. Bouchard) and J. Straus. Having returned to Russia, protected in 1892 dokt, the thesis («An etiology of cholera from the point of view of experimental pathology»). From 1899 to 1908 the director based by it Bacteriological in-that in Odessa. In 1912 — 1928 the in-volume of Jenner directed Ospoprivivatelny (Leningrad). In 1930 — 1938 — the research supervisor Central in-that epidemiology and microbiology in Moscow, the member of Academic medical council of narkomzdrav of the USSR and RSFSR, the department chair of microbiology of the 2nd MMI, since 1939 the manager. laboratory Ying-that epidemiology and microbiology (with 1949 Ying t of epidemiology and microbiology of Η. F. Gamalei of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences).

Η. F. Gamaley — the author more than 300 works, a considerable part to-rykh is devoted to problems of rage and cholera. The so-called intensive method of inoculations is offered them, the provision on existence of the latent forms of an infection is for the first time stated, value of terms of an inoculation of an antirabic vaccine for efficiency of action is specified. In 1888 Η. F. Gamaley was opened by a choleroid bird's vibrio (Vibrio metschnikovii) and offered an anticholeraic vaccine. Its works on the general pathology, an inflammation, bacteriolysins, studying of a phenomenon of a bacteriophagia belong to the 90th years 19 century. In 1894 — 1896 it described the phenomenon of So-called heteromorphism of bacteria, a cut anticipated the modern doctrine about L-forms (see. L-forms of bacteria ). Being engaged in development of questions of epidemiology of plague, Η. F. Gamaley revealed a role of ship rats in spread of a disease and organized continuous deratization during eruption (Odessa, 1902). On an initiative Η. F. Gamalei and by means of the method of preparation of a smallpox vaccine developed by it in 1918 in Petrograd was entered general smallpox vaccination, then accepted over all country according to the decree from 10/1V 1919 g signed by V. I. Lenin. In 1918 — 1919 N. F. Gamaley studied methods of production of a typhous vaccine. In the last years of life he developed questions of the general immunology, virology, studied smallpox, flu, intensively developed a problem of specific treatment of tuberculosis. In 1942 the method of prevention of flu by processing of a mucous membrane of a nose by drugs olein to - you is offered them.

In 1910 — 1913 N. F. Gamaley was an editor of the Hygiene and Sanitation magazine; in 1939 the chairman, and then the Honorary Chairman of All-Union society of microbiologists, epidemiologists and infectiologists. It is awarded by two Orders of Lenin, an award of the Labour Red Banner and medals.

Works: Bacteritic poisons, M., 1893; Fundamentals of immunology, M. — L., 1928; The Filtered viruses, M. — L., 1930; The Doctrine about an infection, M. — L., 1931; Smallpox vaccination, M. — L., 1934; Biological processes of destruction of bacteria, M. — L., 1934; Flu and fight against it, M. — L., 1942; Textbook of medical microbiology, M., 1943; Collected works, t. 1 — 6, M., 1951 — 1964.

Bibliography: N. F. Gamalei's contribution to microbiology and epidemiology, under the editorship of S. N. Muromtsev, M., 1962, bibliogr.; M and l of e of N at sh to and Yu. I., N. F. Gamaley, M.'s N, 1967, bibliogr.; M and l of e of N at sh-to and Yu. I. N and E r m about l e in and 3. V. Nikolay Fedorovich Gamaleya, in book; Gamaley N. F. of SOBR. soch., t. 1, page 399, M., 1956.

Yu. I. Milenushkin.