From Big Medical Encyclopedia

GALVANI Luigi (Galvani Luigi Aloisio, 1737 — 1798) — the Italian anatomist and the physiologist, one of founders of the doctrine about electricity, the founder of an electrophysiology.

Ended Bologna un-t and in the same place taught anatomy, gynecology and obstetrics.

The first works are devoted to a comparative anatomy.

Since 1771 researched the electric phenomena in living tissues. In 1791 published «The treatise about forces of electricity at the muscular movement». For development of an electrophysiology two experiments made by L. Galvani had fundamental value.

In the first experience drug of back extremities of a frog was suspended on a zinc rack with the help of a copper hook. When the extremity of a frog touched a zinc rack, her muscles were reduced. L. Galvani assumed that these reductions are caused by emergence in muscles of electric current. However this assumption was wrong. Offered the correct explanation for this fact in 1792 — 1794 A. Volta, proved that reduction of muscles in this case is caused by the electric current arising in the place of contact of two metals (zinc of a rack and copper of a hook).

In the second experience of L. Galvani observed reduction of a muscle if at the same time unimpaired longitudinal site of a nerve and its cross section were put to it. A source of the electromotive force in this case was the potential difference between the unimpaired and damaged (cut) sites of a nerve. This experience of L. Galvani proved existence of so-called animal electricity, laid the foundation electrophysiologies (see), and also to use of electricity in medicine for diagnosis and treatment (see. Galvanization ).

Works: Aloysii Galvani. De viribus electrici-tatis in motu musculari, Bologna, 1791; Opere edite ed inedite, Bologna, 1841.

Bibliography: Radovsky M. I. Galvani and Volta, To the 150 anniversary of opening of electric current, M. — L., 1941; A rile of S. of Great men of the University of Bologna, Italy (Luigi Galvani, 1737 — 1798), S. Afr. med. J., v. 43, p. 1476, 1969; Aloysio Luigi Galvani (1737 — 1798) discoverer of animal electricity, J. Amer. med. Ass., v. 201, p. 626, 1967, bibliogr.

Lake of P. Necklace.