GALVANIC WORKSHOP, occupational health — the workshop, in Krom is made a covering by cadmium, chrome, zinc or other metals of a surface of metal and nonmetallic products in the way of electrolysis. Before a covering of a product are exposed to cleaning of a rust and scale, degreasing, grinding, polish. At the same time various solvents, nitric, sulfuric, salt, hydrofluoric, fluoric and other acids, alkalis, polishing pastes are used.
Capital processing equipment G. of c. — plating baths (electrolyzers). Electrolyte are aqueous solutions of acid salts of metals (sulfate salts of nickel, copper, zinc) or alkaline complex connections (cyanic compounds of copper, zinc, cadmium and other metals). Air G. of c. can become soiled aerosols of condensation of acids and alkalis, oxides nitrogen (see), chromic anhydride (see. Is lame ), connections fluorine (see) etc.
Intensity of release of harmful substances at electrolysis depends on technological parameters, physical. - chemical properties and concentration of substance in electrolyte. For a gigabyte. estimates of electrolysis process special value has an exit on current — the attitude of almost emitted metal towards amount of metal, a cut had to be distinguished according to theoretical calculation.
From all types of coverings the most adverse in a gigabyte. the relation chromizing as a result of a low exit of chrome on current (12 — 14%) and a considerable hydrogen release and oxygen is. Rough fuming — the main reason for carrying out of electrolyte from a bathtub. The carrying out of chromic anhydride makes 50% and above of its general expense.
The covering chrome of products proceeds at the high densities of current. At wearproof chromizing in bathtubs give current to several thousands of amperes. The surface of a bathtub is recommended to be closed covers or floats. It is necessary to watch the level of electrolyte: the minimum distance from the lower edge of an onboard crack shall make 200 mm. Good gigabyte. the effect is reached during the use of poverkhnostnoaktivny substances. Efficiency of vent systems (onboard suctions) should be tested at the maximum size of current for a bathtub.
For determination of number of gross releases of harmful substances at electrolysis it is recommended to use settlement specific allocations on 1 a*chas, to-rye for chromic anhydride make 80 mg / a-chas (at concentration of chromic anhydride in electrolyte of 250 g/l). For definition of intensity of allocations of aerosols it is necessary to consider the mode of bathtubs, to-ry it is characterized by specific current load of a surface unit of electrolyte and expressed in amperes on square meter. This indicator considerably fluctuates. E.g., at decorative chromizing makes 500 — 1000 cars 2 , at wearproof — 2000 cars 2 and more.
Other types of coverings in comparison with chromizing proceed with smaller release of harmful substances that is determined by high yield by current. So, e.g., during the silvering (cyanic), galvanizing, a cadmium plating, a medneniya (cyanic) an exit on current respectively makes: 100, 95, 95, 75%.
Bathtubs work at insignificant current loadings.
The onboard suctions designed taking into account degree of toxicity and danger of the emitted substances give a good gigabyte. effect.
The main recreational actions in G. of c. come down to replacement of poisonous electrolytes less poisonous or nontoxic (e.g., replacement of cyanic electrolyte at a medneniya with electrolyte on the basis of an etilendiamid); to placement of electrolyzers so that to exclude a possibility of mixing of solutions of prussiates and acids; to the equipment G. of c. all-exchange forced-air and exhaust and local exhaust ventilation, and electrolyzers onboard suctions; isolation of bathtubs with the most harmful allocations. Apply protective liquids, floats, additives to reduction of release of harmful substances. Use for this purpose of high-temperature fractions of oil a layer in 20 mm for chroming bathtubs reduces amount of chromic anhydride over a surface of a bathtub by 600 times, use of polyethylene floats reduces an evaporating surface of electrolyte. Use of the drug «hromin» changes surface intention of electrolyte and reduces ablation of chromic anhydride.
Mechanization and especially automation of technological process of a covering, implementation of measures for the scientific organization of work promote sharp reduction of cases of occupational diseases in these workshops.
At manual service of electrolyzers loading and unloading of products shall be carried out by means of baskets, grids, lattices; removal and transfer of products — by means of hooks, nippers, tweezers. Use at the same time of individual protection equipment is obligatory. It is recommended to grease hands with indifferent ointments and creams (see. Pastes protective ).
At disturbance of the accident prevention at G. workers of c. damages of skin (eczema, a dermatosis, ulcers) and ulcerations of a mucous membrane of a nose, sometimes with a perforation of a cartilaginous part of a partition can be observed. Gasoline, chlorinated hydrocarbons and kerosinony the Prevention and first aid — see in the articles Gasoline, Chlorinated Hydrocarbons can have toxic effect.
G. workers of c. shall be exposed to preliminary and periodic medical examinations (see. Medical examination ). Hromirovshchikov 2 times a month shall examine the otorhinolaryngologist.
Device and G.'s operation of c. are regulated «By safety regulationss and production sanitation by production of metal coatings».
Bibliography: The guide to occupational health, under the editorship of F. G. Krotkov, t. 3, page 392, M., 1961; Yunusova of X. To. and Pavlovsk G. S. Influence of the modes of chromizing on protective properties of a hromin, Protection of metals, t. And, century 2, page 248, 1975, bibliogr.; Yunusova of X. To., etc. Hygienic efficiency of use of the drug «hromin» at electrolytic chromizing, the Gigabyte. work and the prof. having got sick., No. 8, page 15, 1971.
G. I. Yevtushenko, X. K. Yunusova.