GALVANIC SKIN RESPONSE (synonym: Tarkhanov's phenomenon, psychogalvanic reaction) — the change of potential difference and decrease in electric resistance between two sites of a surface of skin arising at various irritations causing contagious excitation. To. - is registered in experimental and a wedge, conditions, in the course of labor and sports activity, and also at space flights for definition of a condition of the autonomic nervous system and the emotsionalnoaffektivny sphere of the person. The first characteristic fluctuations of potentials of skin at the person at contagious excitation were described in 1889 by I. R. Tarkhanov. He assumed that the size of potential of skin depends on secretory activity of sweat glands. Leyder and Montegyyu (M. N. of Lader, I. D. Montegu, 1962) showed that an important role in genesis To. - play the membrannoionny shifts happening in cells of sweat glands at a stage of their presekretorny activity. By radioactive method it was established that electric potentials of skin are formed as a result of the different speed of transmembrane transfer of ions of sodium in cells between outside and internal layers of skin in connection with various level of their energy balance (apprx. 5 — 10% of energy of the oxidation-reduction processes proceeding in skin it will be transformed to bioelectrical energy).
To. - is registered usually in the form of potential difference between two sites of a skin surface or decrease in resistance of skin to a direct current.
At registration To. - electrodes have, e.g., on a palm and the back of a brush. Curve of record K. - reflects slow fluctuation of potential difference (or electric resistance) with the eclipse period of reaction ranging from 1 to 5 sec.
To. - it is shown together with potootdelitelny, pupillary, vascular and other reactions that allows to consider it as an objective indicator of a state autonomic nervous system (see) and emotional sphere. On manifestation To. - the daily periodical press fiziol, functions, age of the examinee, a condition of endocrine system, action of the accepted medicines and other factors influences. Registration To. - it is used during the studying of processes of higher nervous activity (E. N. Sokolov, 1958; P. V. Simonov, 1964) since it is a constant component approximate and research reaction (see) and it it is possible to reproduce uslovnoreflektorno.
Bibliography: V. A. skinners. The comparative characteristic of the skin and galvanic reflexes observed at measurement of a difference of skin potentials and skin resistance, Fiziol, zhurn. USSR, t. 41, No. 2, page 195, 1955; Simonov P. V. Theory of reflection and psychophysiology of emotions, M., 1970, bibliogr.; Tarkhanov I. About the galvanic phenomena in skin of the person at irritations of sense bodys and various forms of mental activity, Vestn, a wedge, and court. psikhiat, and neuropath., No. 1, page 73, 1889.
F. P. Vedyaev.