GALL Franz (Gall Franz Joseph, 1758 — 1828) — the Austrian doctor-neuromorphologist, the creator of phrenology. In 1785 finished medical f-t Vienna un-that. Its main works are devoted to the description of an anatomic structure of a brain. On the basis of data on anatomic relationship of separate parts of a brain tried to determine consistent patterns of mental functions. F. Gall considered a myelencephalon as the body regulating respiratory and cordial activity, subcrustal educations — as the centers of tendencies and inclinations, and brain hemispheres — as body of intellectual qualities of soul.
F. Gall generalized the views in the doctrine called phrenology (see) was also his tireless propagandist.
In 1802 avstr. the authorities prohibited F. Galya the public statements which had obviously materialistic and atheistic character. In 1805 he was forced to leave Vienna and after the two-year wanderings over the countries of Europe lodged in Paris.
The ideas of phrenology F. Galya won the few adherents and followers, to number to-rykh Ruse possessed F. B, and in Russia — D. M. Vellansky. These ideas caused a protest of most of physiologists, anatomists, psychologists.
Despite scientific insolvency of phrenology, and in particular kranioskopiya, nek-ry provisions of this doctrine stimulated studying of morphology and physiology of a nervous system, were a push for development of anthropometry and anthropology. Further fruitfully the thought of localization of functions which was contained in this doctrine in a brain developed. F. Galya researches on anatomy of a nervous system belong. In four-volume work «Anatomy and physiology of a nervous system» with the big carefully executed atlas (1810 — 1820) it generalized the data which were available then in this area.
Works: Philosophisch-medizinische Unter-suchungen tiber Natur und Kunst im kranken und gesunden Zustande des Men-schen, Lpz., 1800; Graniologie, ou decou-vertes nouvelles, concernantl e cerveau, le crane et les organes, P., 1807; Introduction en cours de psychologie du cerveau, P., 1808; &Recherches sur le systne nerveux en general et sur celui du cerveau en particulier, P., 1809 (sovm, with Spurzheim G., Russian lane, SPb., 1816); Anatomie et physiologie du systSme nerveux en general et du cerveau en particulier, P., 1810 — 1820; Sur les fonctions du cerveau et sur celles de chacune de ses parties, P., 1825.
Bibliography: Arkhangelsk G. V. History of neurology from sources till the 20th century, page 143, etc., M., 1965; In about l to about in M. Frenologiya, SPb., 1857; Glezer I. I. Franz Joseph Gall and his role in the history of neurology (To the 200 anniversary since birth), Zhurn, a neuropath, and psikhiat., t. 59, century 2, page 215, 1959, bibliogr.; To and nn and and x Yu. V. Historical ways of the phrenologic ideas and personal destiny of their creator, Klien, medical, t. 7, No. 2, page 65, 1929; Critchley M. Neurology's debt to F. J. Gall (1758 — 1828), Brit. med. J., v. 2, p. 775, 1965; Stock i E. Francis-zek Jozef Gall (1758 — 1828) w 215 rocznice urodzin, Pol. Tyg. lek., s. 1437, 1973, bibliogr.
Yu. P. Lisitsyn.