GALLER Albrecht

From Big Medical Encyclopedia
GALLER Albrecht

GALLER Albrecht (Haller Albrecht, 1708 — 1777) — the Swiss scientist, the doctor and the poet, the foreign member of many academies of Europe, including. St. Petersburg (since 1776). Studied medicine in the Tuebingen and Leiden high fur boots. In 1727 defended the dissertation on degree of the doctor of medicine. In 1727 — 1728 it was improved in Paris and Cambridge. In 1729 — 1736 — the municipal doctor and the keeper of city library in Bern. In 1736 — 1753 taught anatomy, physiology, botany and medicine in Goettingen un-those, organized Royal scientific there in (1751), founded dissecting room and a botanic garden. Since 1753 until the end of life lived in Bern where was engaged in scientific and literary activity.

A. Galler was one of the first scientists who applied a method fiziol, an experiment. Properties of muscle fibers — elasticity, ability to react reduction to irritation of the corresponding nerve and to direct irritation of a muscle are established to them. In this regard he claimed that characteristic property of any irritant is ability «to force an organism to pass from rest to the movement», noted dependence of reaction at most of an irritant. A. Galler one of the first gave the description of functions of a complete organism, paid attention to interdependence of a structure and functions of separate systems and bodies; added U. Garvey's doctrine, having specified communication of various bodies of the blood circulatory system; established that pulse of arteries and capillaries corresponds to reductions of heart; described the mechanism of external respiration, a role of bile in emulsification of fats; for the first time introduced the idea of automatism of heart; described a number of earlier unknown anatomic educations (areus lumbocostalis med. et lat., rete testis, etc.). The anatomic tables made by it («Icones anatomicae», 1743 — 1756) long time were the best grant on studying of anatomy. A. Galler established that in motive acts of an organism it is necessary to distinguish «periphery» and «center». He studied development of a germ of a chicken; having correctly noted imperfection of the theory epigenesis (see), did not manage to estimate, however, it a progressive orientation, tried to prove the theory preformizm (see). It developed the classification of plants based on their outward and a structure of fruits.

Did not lose value, though incomplete, bibliographic works of A. Galler, from to-rykh «Bibliotheca medica», «Bibliotheca botanica», «Bibliotheca medica par botanica», «Bibliotheca anatomica», «Bibliotheca chirurgica» (on 2 volumes of everyone) and «Bibliotheca medicinae practicae» in 4 volumes were published. B them is given the description of all large works in the field of medicine and botany with curriculum vitae about authors.

Literary works of A. Galler are devoted to epistemo-logical questions, in the decision to-rykh it stood on positions of agnosticism.

Social and political views of A. Galler, especially in the last years of life, differed in extreme conservatism. In particular, he sharply opposed the ideas of fr. educators.

Works: Icones anatomicae, fasc. 1 — 8, Got-tingoe, 1 743 — 1756; Primae lineae physiologiae, Gottingoe, 1747, 1751; Opuscula sua anatomica de respiratione, de monstris, aliague minora recensuit amendavit, auxit, aligua inedita novasgue icones addidit, Gottingoe, 1751; Elementa physiologiae corporis humani, Lansanrte — Berne, 1757 — 1766; Bibliotheca anatomica, Tiguri, 1774 — 1777.

Bibliography: History of medicine, under the editorship of B. D. Petrov, t. 1, page 156, M., 1954; Me y e p-Sh of t of e y N of e of of T. and Zudgofk. History of medicine, the lane with it., page 362, M., 1925; M e r to at l about in V. L. Alrekht of Galleys as the researcher and the founder of the first physiological school in the 18th century, in book: From history biol., under the editorship of S. R. Mikulinsky, century 4, page 160, Mv G973, bibliogr.

A. M. Grindings.