GALENOVA DRUGS ( S. Galenus , the Roman doctor and the scientist, 129 — 201) — the pharmaceuticals received by mechanical or physicochemical processing of vegetable or animal medicinal raw materials and the maximum extraction and separation of the operating ingredients from the ground mass of ballast substances. G.'s most of the item represents mix from several substances, sometimes with the obscure chemical structure.
The term «galenova drugs» is entered by Paracelsus and connected with a name of the ancient Roman doctor K. Galen who generalized the ways of processing of medicinal substances, known to it, and disproved the statement of followers of Hippocrates that drugs exist in the nature in finished form and no processing is demanded.
Of the item include the tinctures, extracts, linimentums, mustard plasters, oils, syrups, soaps, plasters, medical waters and alcohols offered at different times and produced by hl. obr. industrially using various pharm. technologies. They are called pharm. drugs unlike chemical and pharmaceutical. The powders described by Galen, pills, flat cakes, infusions, broths, collecting, solutions, mixtures, lotions, compresses, poultices and ointments are called dosage forms (see). The most considerable group G. of the item is made by the tinctures and extracts produced from the crushed vegetable or animal raw materials by extraction by water, alcohol, ether or various mixes of these solvents. Process of extraction consists of a number of operations (insisting, a namachivaniye, maceration, percolation, a reperkolyation, a countercurrent, etc.), to-rye are made industrially on special installations: extractors, perkolyator, dialyzers, settlers, vacuum devices, etc.
G. items take an important place in an arsenal modern to lay down. - professional, means. However they possess essential shortcomings: availability of ballast substances, insufficient firmness at storage, inaccuracy of composition of active ingredients, inconstancy pharmakol, actions, complicating their standardization.
See also Novogalenova drugs .
Bibliography: I. A. Tekhnologiya's ants of drugs, page 10, M., 1971; Rosen-tsveyg P. E. and Sander Yu. K. Tekhnologiya of drugs and galenovy drugs, page 303, L., 1967.
P. L. Senov.