FUSEL OILS — mix of monoatomic higher alcohol of a fatty series, hl. obr. amyl, butyl and propyl, formed as by-products of fermentation during the receiving alcohol of potatoes, molasses, sugar beet; in high concentration are poisonous.
S.'s maintenance of m in alcohol raw (88% of ethanol) makes apprx. 5 g/l. Purification (rectification) of alcohol raw allows to be exempted from S. by m substantially. The operating GOST allow S.'s presence by m in the alcohol rectified (96,5 — 98,0% of ethanol) of 3 — 15 mg/l, in drinking alcohol (95% of ethanol) and vodka — no more than 4 mg on 1 l of anhydrous alcohol or 1,6 mg on 1 l of vodka at contents in it 40% of alcohol. The higher alcohol of a fatty series contains also in cognacs and in wines where they participate in formation of a bouquet of these drinks (see. Alcoholic beverages ).
S.'s presence m in alcoholic beverages of industrial production has no toxicological value. However the high content of S. of m in moonshine (to 10 g/l) and in other alcoholic beverages of house production can become the reason of heavy intoxication. Pages of m slowly are oxidized in an organism that does them by much more toxic, than alcohol (see). Receipt of small amounts of S. of m with alcoholic beverages of house production (home brew, moonshine, chacha, etc.) aggravates and extends alcohol intoxication (see) and a hangover. Hron. poisonings of the person at peroral receipt in an organism of small doses of S. of m or the separate alcohols which are their part are not described.
After peroral receipt in an organism of 250 — 400 g of S. of m or separately amyl alcohol (see), butyl alcohol (see) or propyl alcohol there can be acute poisoning (see) with a loss of consciousness, development of coma; in 4 — 6 hours, in several days after reception of poison there can sometimes come death. On opening find a fluid lungs, focal necroses of a mucous membrane went. - kish. path, diffusion fatty infiltration of a liver, proteinaceous dystrophy of an epithelium of gyrose tubules of kidneys.
Nonlethal acute poisonings after reception by a mistake or with substitutes of alcoholic beverages 30 — 40 g of the higher alcohol which is S.'s part of m are characterized by bystry development of a picture of heavy alcoholic intoxication, pains and burning in a stomach, a headache, a loss of consciousness.
First aid and emergency treatment at acute poisonings The page of m with development of deep intoxication and a loss of consciousness comes down to immediate removal of not soaked up alcohols from a stomach, stimulation of cordial activity (hypodermic introduction of 1 — 2 ml of 20% of solution of camphor, 10% of solution of caffeine of sodium benzoate, solution of Cordiaminum), inhalations of oxygen. If necessary appoint calmatives, warm milk with soda, inside — codeine, a hydrocodon is desirable, libeksinony in case of development of coma the intensive care in the same volume is carried out, as at acute poisonings with alcohol (see. Alcoholic intoxication, treatment of an acute drunkenness ).
Bibliography: Bachurin P. Ya. and With m and r N about in V. Ya. Tekhnologrsh of alcoholic beverage production, M., 1975; Harmful substances in the industry, under the editorship of N. V. Lazarev and E. N. Levina, t. 1, page 371, L., 1976; And d and with to both N and I. D. and Filov V. A. Transformations and definition of industrial organic poisons in an organism, page 176, L., 1971; To and takovskiya 3. Also Smoke N - x and I. M. Himiya's N of wine. M, 1970; Luzhniki E. A. Clinical toxicology, page 244, M., 1982; Technology of alcohol, under the editorship of V. A. Smirnov, M., 1981.
A. N. Zaytsev.