FUR PRODUCTION includes the enterprises of the fur and ovchinnoshubny industry. By types of productions of the enterprise of the fur industry it is possible to divide on syreyno-tinctorial and furrier's and sewing.
Processing of fur skins in grow damp - the number the workshop begins with a washing of skins in caustic solution, in particular soda ash (0,5 g/l), for the purpose of a softening and saturation their water, removals of pollution. Remove hypodermic cellulose by mezdrilny cars; make a pikelivaniye (tanning) of skins in sulphuric acid solution (2,2 g/l), sodium chloride (40 g/l), chromium oxide (1,5 g/l) and urotropin (1 g/l). Wring out skins in the centrifuge and straighten by special cars. Carry out a greasing and a lyustrovaniye (upclassing) of skins using the fatty emulsion including ammonia (25 g/l), and formalin processing. The finishing shop paints furs using various dyes including ursols (derivatives of a paraphenylenediamine).
Working conditions are characterized by the increased humidity in syreyny and tinctorial workshops (86 — 95%) and the elevated temperature of air in drying rooms (to 32 ° in the summer), availability of dust in air of production rooms at mezdrilny cars, in a sorting room, at finishing works and in formalin department. On chemical structure in mezdrilny department dust consists preferential (98%) of organic matters (wool, a hair, an inner side). Particles of dust from 2 to 5 microns in size make 9 — 18%, more than 5 microns — 82 — 91%. In formalin workshops finely divided dust (to 6 microns) makes 87%. In formalin department pollution of the air environment perhaps harmful substances — formaldehyde (see. Ant aldehyde ), methyl alcohol (see), alcohol (see) and formic acid (see). Production noise (see) it is created as a result of operation of processing equipment: centrifuges, shersterezny and shearing cars and other equipment. Levels of sound pressure reach 89 — 92 dB. At insufficient mechanization of works during the cleaning, a hairstyle, combing, fluffing of skins perhaps vibration impact on hands (see. Vibration ).
In the general incidence of workers-furriers diseases of upper respiratory tracts (quinsies, bronchitis, katara of upper respiratory tracts) prevail, gepatokholetsistita, diseases went. - kish. path, musculoskeletal system. Also asthenic states, neurosises with vegetative disturbances, diseases of endocrine system take place.
Occupational diseases at workers-furriers can be shown in a look bronchial asthma (see) and contact dermatitis (see). They develop generally as a result of long work with dyes and other chemical substances and proceed as a generalized allergosis. Changes of a bone tissue of brushes at workers-furriers are noted, hands to-rykh were affected by vibration (see. Vibration disease ).
Recreational actions are directed to decrease in an exercise stress, normalization of a microclimate, decrease in harmful substances and dust in air of production rooms, reduction of noise and vibration.
The progressive technology, the last achievements of chemistry, complex mechanization of labor-intensive processes widely are implemented into syreyno-tinctorial production that significantly improves conditions and the nature of work of furriers.
Requirements to a design of rooms and other existing normative documents on labor protection working in fur production are reflected in «Safety regulationss and production sanitation for the enterprises of the fur and sheepskin and fur-coat industry».
Reduction of an exercise stress and improvement of the production environment are reached by mechanization of works due to implementation modern tekhnol, the equipment, improvement of shelters from sources of gas-allocations, the device of local suctions.
Special attention shall be paid to protection of the integuments and respiratory organs working.
Bibliography: Valiyeva S. S. Fiziologogigiyenicheskaya assessment of service conditions of fur production at six-day week, in book: Sovr, methods of a research in a wedge, and Eksperim., under the editorship of V. E. Anisimov, etc., page 441, Kazan, 1969; Safety regulationss and production sanitation for the enterprises of the fur and sheepskin and fur-coat industry, M., 1961; Samitova R. Sh. and Grachev Yu. P. Fiziol oho-gigiyeni-cheskaya assessment of working conditions and gynecologic incidence of pressers of formalin workshops of fur production, in book: Akush. - ginek, profpatol., under the editorship of 3. N. Yakubova, page 37, Kazan, 1973; Tabachnyk I. D. and Bronstein X. I. A sanitary and hygienic situation and incidence at the Balti fur plant, Health care (Chisinau), No. 1, page 10, 1966.
A. Ya. Dyuzheva.