FUNGI PARASITIC

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

FUNGI PARASITIC (synonym mushrooms parasitic) — the microorganisms which are relating to nongreen inferior plants — to mushrooms, being optional or obligate parasites of the higher plants, fishes, reptiles, birds and mammals. The term «mushrooms» is used in biology. However in medicine it is accepted to call fungi all mushrooms which cause these or those diseases. The diseases caused by G. the item are called fungus diseases, or mycoses (see). Group G. of the item affecting skin and its appendages at the person and animals — hair, nails (claws), combine dermatophytes under the name, or dermatomitseta (see). The majority of dermatophytes is, as a rule, obligate parasites. Other representatives of G. of the item affect internals and systems of bodies — respiratory, digestive, urinogenital, ts.n.s., reticuloendothelial, and also skin and mucous membranes. The most part of representatives of this group belongs to conditionally pathogenic, or optional, to parasites. It is described apprx. 500 types of G. of the item, but many names of types are synonyms, and pathogenicity of some types remains unproven.

The features of sporonosheniye forming as a result of sexual process, number of flagellums at mobile forms are the cornerstone of botanical classification of mushrooms. Distinguish five main classes of mushrooms. Three lowest classes — Chytridiomycetes, Oomycetes, Zygomycetes — are characterized by lack of a mycelium or primitive not jointed (not divided by partitions) a mycelium and existence of fruit bodies in the form of the sporangium filled with disputes. Two highest classes differ in the developed jointed mycelium and formation of sporonosheniye in the form of bags with endogenous disputes (ask) — Ascomycetesn in the form of open educations (basidiums) with exogenous disputes — Basidiomycetes.

Of the item which lost a sexual way of reproduction or at which it is not revealed are united in an artificial class of imperfect mushrooms — Fungi imperfecti (a synonym: Deuteromycetes, Adelomycetes). Of the item — causative agents of mycoses of the person and animals, meet in the classes Phycomycetes, Ascomycetes and Fungi imperfecti.

Parasitic properties of dermatophytes earlier, than similar properties of other G. of the item, became known to medical mycologists; numerous attempts of creation of autonomous classification of dermatophytes out of botanical system of mushrooms are also explained by it. R. Saburo (1910) classification was the first and the most popular, four principles are the basis a cut: 1) morphology of dermatophytes in a hair; 2) macro - and the microscopic characteristic of culture of the activator; 3) identification of a source of infection (person, animal); 4) wedge, picture of mycosis. Considering absence at dermatophytes of a sexual way of reproduction, R. Saburo carried all dermatophytes to a class of imperfect fungi this. Dermatomycetaceae. Meaning three types of fungal infections of a pilar part of the head — a trichophytosis, a microsporia and a favus, he distinguished respectively three sorts of dermatophytes, their activators: Trichophyton, Microsporum and Achorion. In this classification there was no sort Epidermophyton — the activator of an epidermophitia, and also activators of keratomycoses and deep mycoses which were at that time a little known. The leading criteria for definition of childbirth and types of dermatophytes on Saburo's classification were morphology of a fungus in a parasitic stage and epidemiol, the characteristic of a disease that was especially valuable to orientation of the practical doctor. Despite essential shortcomings, Saburo's classification long kept the value; it formed a basis for creation of the subsequent a wedge, classifications according to modern data of a mycology. Also other classifications based on botanical, ekol were created., serol, and other principles [Viyemen (P. Vuillemin, 1910); Castellani (A. Castellani, 1923); Ott, Lanzheron (M. of Ota, M. of Langeron, 1923); Grigoraki and Giyyar (L. Grigoraki, J. Guiart, 1928); Bruns and Alexander (C.Bruhns, A. Alexander, 1928); Emmons (S. of Emmons, 1934); I. S. Popov (1941); A. M. Krichevsky (1941); D. L. Voronov (1946); Milosevic, Vanbreyzegem (S. Milochevitch, R. Vanbreuseghem, 1952), etc.]. All these classifications lit any one sign of dermatophytes and therefore did not satisfy to interests of medical mycologists and were practically not used. However the botanical direction was implemented into a medical mycology more and more deeply. Use of special growth techniques allowed to reveal at many dermatophytes the perfect forms of a sporonosheniye resulting from sexual process that proved phylogenetic communication of dermatophytes with the highest mushrooms. But perfect forms were nonpathogenic at many types. As a perfect sporonosheniye dermatophytes carry to the class Ascomycetes, this. To Gymnoascaceae, the sort Ctenomyces, and their imperfect pathogenic forms — still to the class Fungi imperfecti where they are united in special classifications of dermatophytes. The greatest recognition was gained by L. Georg's classification offered on the XI International congress of dermatologists in 1957. This classification includes three sorts — Trichophyton, Microsporum, Epidermophyton in which types are integrated on a botanical (cultural) sign. Therefore in the sort Trichophyton were included in activators not only trichophytosis (see), but also microsporias (see), favus (see), epidermophitias (see), tineas (see). So, according to new taxonomical situation, Microsporum ferrugineum, by M. equinum began to name Trichophyton ferrugineum, T. equinum; Achorion schonleinii, A. quinckeanum, A. gallinae received the name Trichophyton schonleinii, T. quinckeanum, T. gallinae; Epidermophyton rubrum — Trichophyton rubrum; Epidermophyton Kaufmann — Wolf received the name Trichophyton interdigit ale, further — T. mentagrophytes.

Fungi parasitic. 1 — a test tube with a plain agar (for comparison); 2 — Aspergillus; 3 — Blastomyces dermatitidis; 4 — Candida; 5 — Cephalosporium; 6 — Coccidioides immitis; 7 — Cryptococcus neoformans; 8 — Epidermophyton floccosum; 9 — Geotrichum; 10 — Histoplasma capsulatum; 11 — Microsporum audouinii; 12 — Microsporum canis; 13 — Microsporum distortum; 14 — Microsporum ferrugineum; 15 — Microsporum gypseum; 16 — Mucor; 17 — Penicillium. In the right upper corner of a test tube — microscopy of culture (scheme).
Fungi parasitic. 18 — Phialophora; 19 — Scopulariopsis; 20 and 21 — Sporotrichum; 22 — Trichosporon beigelii; 23 — Trichophyton concentriciim; 24 — Trichophyton gallinae; 25 — Trichophyton megninii; 26 — Trichophyton mentagrophytes; 27 — Trichophyton mentagrophytes (var. interdigitale); 28 — Trichophyton quinckeanum; 29 — Trichophyton rubrum; 30 — Trichophyton Schonleinii; 31 — Trichophyton tonsurans; 32 — Trichophyton verrucosum (album); 33 — Trichophyton verrucosum (discoides); 34 — Trichophyton violaceum. In the right upper corner of a test tube — microscopy of culture (scheme).

Revealing perfect forms of dermatophytes, authors give them quite often new names, and different authors appropriate various names to the same look. E.g., Nannizzi (A. Nannizzi, 1927) called a perfect form of Microsporum gypseum — Gymnoascus gypseus, and Stokdeyl (P. Stockdale, 1963) — Nannizzia incurvata, etc. On two names and more it appeared at perfect and imperfect forms of the same types. Due to the abundance of synonyms the decision to designate types of dermatophytes the name offered by the original author was made. So, the name Trichophyton gypseum was replaced with the name Trichophyton mentagrophytes, a cut the described his Roben gave to this dermatophyte for the first time (Ch. Robin, 1853); and under this name two relatives botanical, but various on the parasitic properties of a dermatophyte — Trichophyton gypseum and Epidermophyton Kaufmann — Wolf are integrated. To a dermatophyte of Microsporum lanosum its first name — M. is returned to canis; Trichophyton faviforme now again designate its first name — T. verrucosum; Epidermophyton inguinale — E. floccosum etc. All these changes complicated classification and the nomenclature of dermatophytes; classification, edges would answer taxonomical rules and satisfied interests of medical mycologists, is not developed yet. Of the item, known usually as saprophytes and the showing parasitic properties only in special conditions of a macroorganism and the environment, take the appropriate place in natural botanical classification of mushrooms (tsvetn. fig. 1 — 34). Fungi of the sorts Candida, Geotrichum, Cryptococcus — activators (respectively) candidiasis (see), a geotrichosis (see. Mould mycoses ) and cryptococcosis (see), not having a sexual way of reproduction, belong to the class Fungi imperfecti, an order of Cryptococcales, this. Cryptococcaceae. Causative agents of mold mycoses from the sorts Aspergillus, Penicillium enter a class of the highest mushrooms Ascomycetes, an order of Plectascales, this. Aspergillaceae. G.'s types of the item which are entering the same sort, but lost a sexual way of reproduction belong to the class Fungi imperfecti, an order of Hyphomycetales. Activators of a mukormikoz, or fikomikoz, enter a class of the lowest mushrooms Phycomycetes, this. Mucoraceae. Taxonomical position of causative agents of some deep mycoses (see. Zymonematoses ) — etc. — cannot consider histoplasmosis, a coccidioidomycosis, Gilchrist's zymonematosis (Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, Blastomyces dermatitidis) studied, and on this matter there are different, quite often contradictory opinions. Actinomycetes (see) among which there are activators of an actinomycosis, erythrasmas, an axillary trikhonokardioz, are considered in the section G. of the item conditionally since, on modern representations, they do not treat fungi and the diseases caused by them only by tradition remain within a medical mycology.

Biology

G.'s Cells of the item are dressed by the firm cover consisting of the carbohydrates close on chemical structure to cellulose, contain the nitrogenous substances similar to chitin of insects. The surface of a cellular cover can be smooth, acanthceous, hilly and so forth, colourless or painted in brownish, green, yellow and other colors. Protoplasm in young cells of homogen, in old — a vakuolizirovan is also located usually pristenochno. Kernels of cells come to light only at special methods of coloring; one cell contains several kernels. From storage compounds in protoplasm of cells the glycogen, volutin, oil droplets, pigments, various on coloring and chemical structure, from which water-soluble paint the environment in the corresponding color, and also crystals oxalic, lemon and others to - t are postponed.

As nongreen plants of G. of the item are not capable to synthesize organic matters from inorganic. The structure of a body of fungi, including and G. of the item, provides a big surface, through to-ruyu there is an osmotic absorption of organic compounds. The vegetative body of fungi consists of threads (floccuses) which textures form a mycelium (mycelium). In a hypha partitions which divide thread into separate cells grow. In a partition there is a small opening providing the general exchange in all thread. The mycelium which does not have partitions (at the lowest mushrooms), in essence represents one colossal cell with a set of kernels; it is called not jointed, or neseptirovanny. A mycelium with partitions (at the highest mushrooms) call jointed, or septirovanny. Distinguish a mycelium substrate, growing on Wednesday through which there is nutritive absorption, and air, developing over substrate, bearing a sexual and sexless reproductive organs.

In view of the fact that a long time perfect forms at dermatophytes were unknown, their identification was made on character of a mycelium and vegetative sporonosheniye. Therefore in a medical mycology many conditional, practical, botanical not scientific terms which, however, keep the value in definition of types of dermatophytes collected. So, arborization of threads of a mycelium with expansions on the ends is called «horns of a deer», «candelabrums», «hare ears» (a dermatophyte of Trichophyton schonleinii); turbinal threads — «spirals» (a dermatophyte of T. mentagrophytes); the branching on one party of thread reminding a comb — «crested bodies» (Microsporum canis, M. equinum); significance is attached to branching at right angle (Trichophyton violaceum). In young cultures of M. of canis, T. mentagrophytes meet the threads as if tied by a node — «knotty bodies» which consider as rudiments of a perfect fruit body — a perithecium.

Though G.'s mycelium of the item is their somatic body, it performs also functions of reproduction, breaking up to separate cells, each of which can give rise to a new individual. On a way of education the dispute is distinguished: the artrospor which are formed as a result of division of thread of a mycelium into equal cells; the oidiya developing on the unit in the form of chains; the chlamydospores which are formed by expansion of thread of a mycelium on its extent (intercalary) or on the end (terminal) where protoplasm from the next sites flows down. Chlamydospores are covered with the thick cover protecting protoplasm from adverse external effects that promotes preservation of a look.

Bodies of sexual and asexual reproduction are more various and characteristic. Of the item both types of reproduction, and sexual much more occur at G. less than sexless. Basic distinction between these ways of reproduction consists that merge of two heteronymic cells (men's and women's) provides new combinations of ancestral features whereas at vegetative reproduction ancestral features remain invariable.

At representatives of the class Phycomycetes sexual reproduction is carried out by merge of the ends of threads of two various myceliums, and the zygote — the roundish acanthceous education hanging on two threads forming it is as a result formed. The sporangiophore having spherical education on the end — the sporangium filled with disputes grows from a zygote after a dormant period. At representatives of the class Ascomycetes an end product of merge of men's and female cells is the bag (ask) of strongly extended oval, club-shaped or round form, in a cut the 4 or 8 dispute contains. At some types of a bag are formed directly on a mycelium, at others — in special fruit bodies — kleystokarpiya, peritetion (see. Ascomycetes ). At the types breeding sexually can be as well a vegetative reproductive organs. So, at representatives of phycomycetes a sporangium on sporangiophores can develop also in the sexless way — in the form of air outgrowths on a substrate mycelium. At ascomycetes asexual reproduction is provided with exogenous disputes (conidiums) developing on an air part of a mycelium. The morphology of conidiums is very different and in combination with other signs is criterion in definition of types. Conidiums can be one-celled and multicellular, they are located directly on a mycelium or on more or less long leg — a conidiophore. Conidiophores on the ends can branch, forming brushes from which conidiums in the form of chains (Penicillium) depart, or on the ends of conidiophores inflation of a different form (club-shaped, pear-shaped, cylindrical is formed, etc.), from a surface to-rogo in all directions chains of conidiums depart (see. Aspergillus ). Multicellular conidiums have oba chno the sizes to 50 — 70 microns, the extended form — spindle-shaped, crescent, bananovidny, etc. are divided by cross partitions into several cameras, each of which can give rise to growth of a mycelium. At dermatophytes to one-celled conidiums there correspond microconidiums, or the aleyriya which are formed by protrusion of sidewalls of a mycelium in the form of leaflets on a branch or a cone. Protoplasm of the thread forming them is spent for their creation. Conidiums can be pear-shaped, round, rhabdoid or oval that is species character. To the concept «multicellular conidiums» at dermatophytes there correspond the concepts «macroconidiums», or «spindles». Yeast-like fungi have a peculiar type of vegetative reproduction by budding. From a mother cell 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 daughter cells and more gemmate. The number of the gemmating cells and their arrangement on a mother cell (opposite, cross and so forth) are sometimes the defining sign of a look. At yeast-like fungi of a cell, the joints of a mycelium gemmating in places, are called blastospor. The fungal organisms breeding budding are called a blastomyces.

Parasitism leads, as a rule, to simplification of a form G. of the item which in tissues of the owner are often submitted only by the threads of a mycelium and educations which are conditionally called by disputes — disputes are formed as a result of disintegration of threads, or drozhzhevidny cells (dermatophytes, aspergilla, penicillia, mucor, tsefalosporium, etc.). But if mold G.'s development by the item happens in the open cavities which are reported to v with the air environment (acoustical pass, a bronchial tube, the drained pulmonary cavity), then aspergilla, penicillia, mucor can form in an air part of a mycelium characteristic of them konidialny sporonosheniye. At some G. is the item relating to dimorphous fungi, the fabric form cannot be considered simplified though significantly differs from saprofitichesky (Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis). Yeast-like fungi of Candida and Cryptococcus neoformans significantly do not change the morphology depending on mode of existence.

The short characteristic of main types of parasitic fungi — see the table.

Proteins, carbohydrates, mineral substances, some vitamins are necessary for G.'s food of the item. Character of food, and also parasitic properties are defined by a set of the enzymes inherent in this look. Of the item possess proteolytic, glycolytic, karbolitichesky, lipolytic, keratolytic and other enzymes. Keratolytic enzymes are especially characteristic of dermatophytes because they cause their parasitism in horn substances of skin and its appendages — hair, nails. Dominance of proteolytic enzymes, and at some types and hyaluronidase provides implementation of fungi in skin, hypodermic cellulose, muscles, internals. Developing on the wet or got wet sterns (hay, straw, grain) or on foodstuff (flour, rice, a peanut, etc.), the item (aspergilla, penicillia, mucor) develop some G. as one of products of metabolism high-poisonous for the person and animals of substance — mycotoxins (see), aflatoxins (see). At consumption of these products or forages there is serious poisoning — mikotoksikoza. Some aflatoxins have cancerogenic properties.

All G. of the item — aerobes (see), but many of them, parasitizing in fabrics of a macroorganism, adapt to mikroaerofilny conditions. G.'s most of the item well develops at alkalescent (pH 7,2 — 7,4) or subacidic (pH 6,7 — 6,8) reaction of the environment; but many of them can develop also at fluctuations of pH of the environment ranging from 2 to 12. A temperature optimum for G.'s most of item 20 — 30 °, views with the expressed pathogenicity grow also at t ° 37 °. The thermophiles maintaining temperature to 55 ° occur among pleseny.

All G. of the item, except for dermatophytes, are saprophytes (see) also pass to a parasitic way of life rather seldom. It is experimentally established that at many types of G. of the item selected from natural substrates, e.g. Sporotrichum, Phialophora, Monosporium at inoculation pathogenic properties are expressed to animals poorly or are not shown at all. The fact that, despite a wide spread occurance in the nature, the diseases caused by them meet rather seldom is explained by it. However the high-pathogenic types causing already at the first inoculation an animal heavy a wedge, displays of the corresponding mycosis occur among saprophytes (Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis).

Conditions of transition of G. of the item from a saprofitichesky state in parasitic are insufficiently studied. Different role of injuries of skin and mucous membranes, macerations of skin in a pathogeny of infections is proved. Climatic conditions — humidity and high temperature — promote emergence, sometimes heavier course of mycoses. Decrease in reactivity, body resistance, falling of its immuno-protective forces as a result of the postponed diseases, different disturbances of exchange, especially carbohydrate, diseases of endocrine system, c are essential. N page, avitaminosis. Antibiotics, especially wide range of antibacterial action, can bring to to dysbacteriosis (see), against the background of to-rogo items, insensitive to these antibiotics of G., develop. Corticosteroid hormones, cytostatic drugs, suppressing inflammatory, defense reactions, reducing immunity, can promote emergence and development of fungal infections.

Aspergilla and penicillia hl are widespread. obr. in the soil. These G. of the item on bread, cheese, jam, etc. develop, their disputes get to air and quite often are the reason of allergic diseases, in particular bronchial asthma.

Yeast-like fungi of the sorts Candida and Geotrichum need for the development carbohydrate connections and meet in the soil preferential near human dwellings, and also on sweet fruit and vegetables. Cryptococcus neoformans is allocated from the soil and from a dung of pigeons, sparrows, canaries, pheasants in many countries. Pigeon dung is considered an important habital of this fungus. Candida, Geo trichum and many a mold are a part of normal microbic flora of the person and animals and reside on skin and mucous membranes of an oral cavity, respiratory tracts and a digestive tract. Therefore the infection these G. of the item arises in often endogenous way.

Some G.' distribution by the item is limited to certain local zones. So, Coccidioides immitis meets hl. obr. in California, Arizona, Texas (USA), in South America, and in areas where the periods of rains are replaced by a drought. But also in soils of these zones C. immitis it is widespread unevenly. In the humidified soil it vegetirut, increases the weight, breaks up to artrospor which during the droughty period of year currents of a .vozdukh rise up and get into lungs of people and animals. Local zones histoplasmosis (see) are located in basins of the rivers Ohio, Mississippi, Missouri (USA), South and Central America, in Africa and Asia. Histoplasma capsulatum meets preferential in the red podsolic soils and soils dunged by a dung of birds and birds have no histoplasmosis. Bats and small rodents support this fungal infections in the nature. Activators sporotrichosis (see) — Sporotrichum, chromomycosis (see) — Phialophora, a tsefalosporioza — Cephalosporium treat residents of the soil, meet also on plants where are brought with dust. These G. items are distributed in different climatic zones, but the diseases caused by them meet in the tropical and subtropical countries more often. Since the time of R. Saburo attempts of detection of dermatophytes in the nature became. Offered by Vanbreyzegem (R. Vanbreuseghem, 1952) the technique of allocation of keratinofilny fungi from the soil allowed to establish, however, that only Microsporum gypseum is regularly and everywhere allocated from 70 — 80% of the explored soils. At the same time the mycosis caused by this dermatophyte is registered extremely seldom. Certain researchers managed to allocate single strains of T from the soil. mentagrophytes, T. verrucosum, T. rubrum, M. canis, etc., but at the same time was not noted either numerical, nor geographical coincidence of these finds to incidence of people - the corresponding dermatomycoses in this area. On the other hand, it is experimentally established that a large number of antagonists of dermatophytes among actinomycetes, a nematode, mites and bacteria is widespread in soils. It is proved that in the unsterile soil the majority of dermatophytes keeps viability from several days to several months. All this demonstrates small probability of existence of dermatophytes in the nature. The assumption is more probable that various childbirth and types of dermatophytes, being specialized as parasites of the person and certain animal species, are obligate parasites and their safety in the nature is maintained by sick corresponding mycoses people and animals.

Laboratory methods of detection and identification of parasitic fungi

Technique of microscopic examination. As material for a research at dermatomycoses serve the affected hair, scales of skin, scrapings from nails which process 10 — 30% caustic alkali { NaOH or the GAME). 1 — 2 drops of alkali apply on a slide plate with the corresponding material, cover with cover glass and leave for 15 — 20 min. (scrapings from nails on 1 — 2 hour) to a full enlightenment. Researches of liquid excrement (urine, a gastric juice, pleural exudate, cerebrospinal liquid, etc.) at candidiasis (see) and other visceral mycoses make with preliminary centrifuging. At candidiasis the deposit is investigated in an uncolored look; at cryptococcosis (see) add a drop of ink to a deposit, against the background of a cut there is noticeable a capsule, characteristic of a cryptococcus. At histoplasmosis (see) do a smear which, as well as other materials, napr, prints from ulcers, sternal punctate, leykokontsentrat blood, paint across Romanovsky — to Gimza of a deposit. Sferula of the causative agent of koktsidioidny mycosis are better visible in mix of alcohol with glycerin 1:1. At various mold mycoses detection of characteristic konidialny sporonosheniye and threads of a mycelium can have diagnostic value only at a repeated positive take of cultivation.

Techniques of cultural researches

All G. more or less well grow at the item on the dense circle of Saburo (glucose or maltoses of 40 g, peptone of 10 g, an agar agar of 18 — 20 g, mains water 1 of l), on fluid medium of Saburo (the same structure without agar) and a must agar (1 l of not become tipsy beer must with a sugar content of 7 — 8% on Ballingu and 20 g an agar agar). Some G. items demand special environments on which their specific characters are better shown. For mold fungi — Capek's circle — Doksa (glucose or maltoses of 30 g, NaNO3 — 3 g, K2HPO4 — 1 g, MgSO4 — 0,5 g, KCl — 0,5 g, FeSO4 — 0,01 g, waters — 1 l). For cultivation of a cryptococcus, a gistoplazma, a koktsidioidny mushroom, a sporotrikhum, etc. use a beef-extract agar with addition of 10% of a defibrinated blood of the person or animals. For identification of filamentation (mycelium) at yeast-like fungi apply the potato environment (20 g of the peeled and grated potatoes, 1 l of mains water and 10 — 20 g an agar agar) or rice (20 g of rice on 1 l of water). Anaerobic forms of actinomycetes grow up in mikroaerofilny conditions on a beef-extract agar (0,15%) with addition of 1% of glucose. Crops is made in depth of a column of the environment and filled in with a sterile liquid paraffin.

Identification of cultures

At G.'s definition items consider external signs of colony (flat, convex, wrinkled, smooth, growing on Wednesday, smetanoobrazny), character of its surface (leathery, poroshkovaty, fluffy, lustrous), color (white, violet, orange, red and so forth), color of a reverse side of colony (colourless, yellow, orange, red and so forth). During the studying of microscopic structure of colony consider existence macro - both microconidiums and character of a mycelium. Make for definition of types of the sort Candida biochemical, researches on ability to fermentation and assimilation of sugars (glucose, a maltose, a galactose, sucrose, lactose), to fluidifying gelatin, to coagulation of milk, splitting of ursin and so forth. Ability of fermentation of sugars (zimogramm) is defined on the special environment (30 g of dry or 80 g of pressed yeasts on 1 l of mains water), to-ruyu divided into 5 parts and add 2% of one of the listed sugars to each of them; place in each test tube upside down a glass float. The Ispytuyemy culture is oversown in 5 test tubes (by amount of sugars); the nature of fermentation is determined by amount of gas in floats. For definition of nature of assimilation of carbohydrates (auksanogramm) to synthetic medium [(NH4)2SO4 — 0,5 of %, KH2PO4 — 0,1%, MgSO4 — 0,05% in a dist, water] add 2% of one of the same sugars to each of 5 parts of this Wednesday, sow with ispytuyemy culture and in 2 — 4 days on intensity of dregs register extent of digestion of this or that sugar.

Reactions of immunity

Antigenic properties G. of the item are not identical. At one (Candida, Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, Blastomyces dermatitidis, etc.) clearly ability to formation of various antibodies — complement-linked, agglutinins, pretsipitin is expressed that leads to a specific immunol. to reorganization of an organism of the owner. At others (dermatophytes, aspergilla, penicillia) this ability is changeable and indistinctly expressed. At the third (geotrikhum, a cryptococcus) immunol, activity does not come to light. With the diagnostic purpose apply reactions of binding complement, agglutinations, precipitations in gel (on Oukhterlonya), passive hemagglutination, an immunofluorescence, etc. Antigens like vaccines, polisakharidny fractions, filtrates of a medium, etc. prepare from cultures of the corresponding activators.

The bioassey on animals is used in the diagnostic purposes, for definition of pathogenic properties of cultures of G. of the item, in research for receiving models of various mycoses, etc. Inoculate G.'s cultures of the item, patol, material from patients (a phlegm, urine, pus, pleural exudate, cerebrospinal liquid and so forth), and also biopsirovanny pieces of fabric. Unsterile material is previously processed within 1 hour solutions of antibiotics (to 500 PIECES/ml) in the quantity corresponding to volume patol, material.

In each case use an animal, sensitive to this fungal infection. Rabbits, white mice are sensitive to infection of Candida, Geotrichum and Guinea pigs are not sensitive. Dermatophytes well take root to Guinea pigs and rabbits and do not take root to white mice and rats. The cryptococcus, gistoplazma, koktsidioidny fungus study by inoculation to white mice and golden hamsters etc. The way of introduction of culture or patol, material is defined by a goal and character of an inoculum — intravenous, intraperitoneal, intratestikulyarny, in an anterior chamber of an eye, intratserebralny and so forth.

The histologic research with the diagnostic purpose is made at different mycoses. For a research biopsirut pieces of fabrics from ulcers, erosion, walls of the fistular courses and any struck bodies. Reaction of fabrics to implementation of a fungus determine by coloring gistol, drugs hematoxylin-eosine, etc., existence of fungal elements — coloring by Gram — to Veygert. However these ways of coloring not always possible to find drozhzhevidny cells of a gistoplazma; sferula of the activator of a coccidioidomycosis, etc. Apply more specific colourings to their identification — across IAC Manus (Schiff's reactant), Gomori — to Grokott, according to A. L. To Shabadash, etc. Sometimes these ways of coloring possible not only to reveal the activator, but also to define its look.

See also Zymonematoses , Fungus diseases of skin , Mushrooms , Mycoses , Mould mycoses .


Short characteristic of main types of parasitic fungi and actinomycetes, clinic and epidemiology of mycoses and actinomycosis

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A. M. Ariyevich, 3. G. Stepanishcheva.

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