From Big Medical Encyclopedia

FREYDYZM — the general name of a number of the directions in the medicine, psychology, the philosophy and nek-ry other sciences applying certain provisions to an explanation of all-pathological, and also psychological, social or cultural phenomena developed 3. Freud of the psychoanalytic concept. In narrow sense the term «freydizm» is sometimes used as a synonym of the term psychoanalysis (see). T. is one of the most influential forms of modern bourgeois ideology; in medicine the hl develops. obr. within psychoanalysis and a psychosomatic medicine (see).

Fundamental role in formation F. the book published in 1913 3 played. Freida «Totem and taboo. Psychology of primitive culture and religion». In this work psychoanalysis was for the first time applied as a method etnografiches whom iso summer a va-niya of culture, language and mythology of primitive tribes and parades. A starting point, the Freudian analysis of primitive culture h e and r and in about l of i e r N about e with l izh e N and e and Yiddish of t d at - alyyuy psychology of the neurotic with psychology of people of the remote past was. Such formulation of the question allowed 3. To Freud during the studying of primitive religion, psychology and culture to use the basic concepts of the psychoanalytic doctrine. At the same time he tried to give historical justification of one of the central concepts of the doctrine — «An Oedipus complex».

The crisis of bourgeois culture which especially escalated after the end of World War I (1914 — 1918) promoted transformation F. in comprehensive irratsiona-listichesky philosophy of life, ethics and an esthetics, psychology and anthropology of culture. Such works 3 testify to it. Freida as «Future of one illusion» (1927), «Moisey and monotheism» (1939), etc. The culture in them is considered as r by it res about the ivny mechanism, with about z yes yushchiya various bans for protection against aggressive, antisocial inclinations (see) and the instincts (see) which are allegedly put in unconscious. One of ways of such protection 3. Freud considered religious representations. Proceeding from scientifically not reasonable analogy between stages of individual and psychological development of neurosis and history of development of human society he tried to explain process of formation monotheist to religion (Judaism and Christianity). In works of the last years of life 3. Freud tried to prove tragedy of existence of the person in the world, prophesied about possible death of culture, stated emergencies to bourgeois society. Afterwards these ideas provided to the doctrine 3. Freida wide popularity among supporters of the movement of a protest — «new left», a cut arose in the late sixties — the beginning of the 70th in many capitalist countries. Theorists of this petty-bourgeois movement aimed to prove by means of F. opp about z and tsionno - to r itiches Kia, and on r-

the hists-ky moods which considerably amplified in bourgeois society in recent years.

Development F. after death 3. Led Freud to emergence of a neofreydizm, pla of a postfreydizm. Supporters of a neofreydizm p opytatsya to release F. from the most vulnerable aspects of the concept 3. Freida: any mifologizprovaniye, a hypertrophy of sexuality, etc. also an attempt to prove F Was made., leaning a pas the latest doyen i e N and I f and z and against l about and and, p with and x about l about and and, medicine, linguistics and other sciences. Distinctive feature neo-frey dists ky concepts show I the provision on a crucial role of cultural factors in an etiology of neurosises (see), formation and formation of the identity of the person and transferring of the center of gravity from intra loonies-chesky processes on the interpersonal relations. So, naira., the founder of the Parisian school of a neofreydizm J. Lacan aimed to turn psychoanalysis into strict science by loan of methods of structural linguistics. He considered unconscious as the phenomenon of language which is closely connected with cultural life of human society.

Among various directions of a neofreydizm the so-called freydomarksizm has special influence, spiritual leaders to-rogo are W. Reich, Fromm (E. Fromm), to G. Marcuse. The aspiration to create «synthesis» of psychoanalysis and the Marxist concept is characteristic of a freydomarksizm. Randomly the interpreted nek-ry ideas of historical materialism «are enriched» with the Freudian theory of inclinations. At the same time concept 3. Freida is represented as the revolutionary and critical doctrine. Supporters of this current criticize bourgeois society, its health system. Mental diseases are represented by them as some kind of tools of a protest of the personality, ways of her release from fetters of social oppression, overcoming the alienation of the person dominating in bourgeois society. The similar understanding of origins of mental disorders and the social conflicts leads to formation of projects of a reorganization of human society illusory and reactionary in essence.

Approach of Fromm who subjected to sharp criticism bourgeois society and its culture is characteristic in this respect. He considered that the deep basis of the personality is made by fear, to-ry forces out in unconscious everything that is incompatible with the norms dominating in society. At the same time bourgeois society, by Fromm's definition, «sick» or «irrational», offers the individual illusory means of protection for fear and despair. These protective mechanisms make so-called «social character» — set of the psychological lines inherent in this or that social group allowing the person to adapt rather without serious consequences the societies which are forced out to the sphere of an unconscious inclination to requirements. Fromm allocates various types of social characters — nakopitelskiya, receptive, exploiter, market, to-rye, in his opinion, match historical forms of alienation. But these means of protection are insufficient and inadequate to the person. Therefore for the people living in conditions of a bourgeois civilization to a cut Fromm absolutely unreasonably ranked also the socialist countries, increase of feeling of loneliness, alarm and concern is characteristic. These patol. and ffekta I in l I to Utah I to it wasps re ds gv the unlimited reason of mental diseases, formations of certain types of the neurotic personality. Therefore he suggested to carry out improvement of society by methods of social therapy and re-education, ignoring thereby class fight of the proletariat.

On other positions there was one of the closest pupils 3. Freida — Raich. He considered that already since an era of patriarchy, but especially in the conditions of capitalism society carries out suppression of human sexuality and it is the reason of various neurosises. For release of repressed «ge-nitalntssta» of the modern person it is necessary, according to Raich, sexual revolution, in the course a cut sexual oppression shall be eliminated that allegedly will lead to improvement of society and eradication of neurosises. Eclectically combining psychoanalysis with the Marxist theory, Raich tried to create by analogy with political economy of K. Marx special scientific discipline under the name «sexual economy», aim a cut was in studying ways of the most rational distribution of the sexual energy released as a result of revolution. Reasonings on suppression of sexuality and its subsequent revolutionary release gained special popularity since the second half of the 60th when in many capitalist countries, especially among supporters of the student's movement of a protest, the idea of sexual revolution revived.

Other influential ideologist of a freydomarksizm and the movement «new left» was to G. Marcuse. As well as Raich, it upheld the doctrine about the repressive, ugnetatelsky nature of culture. Elimination of repressive tendencies of bourgeois society and its state and legal institutes, to-rye aim to manipulate consciousness of individuals, to G. Marcuse understood as release of erotic inclinations of the person and destruction of social norms and bans. It reduced difficult, contradictory dynamics of public life to an antagonism of two antagonistic cultures — ugnetatelsky, based on suppression by reason of pleasure (a symbol of this culture Prometheus's image), and spheres of domination of «new sensuality», games, imaginations, «the free erotic relation to reality» (its symbols — Orpheus and the Narcissus serves). The last shall force out ugnetatelsky culture by «humanization» of the sphere of instincts and release erotic (libidinoz-ache) energy within the future of «not repressive society». As means of revolutionary change of society he offered exclusively illegal violent forms — not controlled revolt, pseudorevolutionary terrorism, etc. The concept exerted G. Marcuse serious impact on formation of social philosophy, an esthetics and ideology of modern left extremism («new left») — so-called countercultures, edges is opposed to bourgeois cultural values and ideology.

The Markuzeansky option of Freudian psychoanalysis received specific refraction in the field of psychiatry. In the 60th arose and the so-called anti-psychiatry began to develop intensively. Supporters of anti-psychiatry consider modern bourgeois society and its health system as the huge car of violence, repression, suppression of the personality. Manipulating public consciousness, this society acts as prison, as the tool of suppression of freedom of the person. And the psychiatry turns into a synonym of the ofitsializirovan-ny (legalized) violence acting behind a mask of medicine and science here. The mental disease, from the point of view of supporters of anti-psychiatry, is only one of types of a social protest, by means of to-rogo patients aim to eliminate the violence committed over them from a family or society. Approach scientifically insolvent and reactionary in essence leads similar to denial of evidence-based methods of treatment of mental diseases.

Modern F. exerts also noticeable impact on a number of the directions of bourgeois philosophy — ekzisten-tsializkhm, structuralism, philosophical anthropology, etc. Despite the known critical relation to capitalist society and its cultural values, T. is purely bourgeois form of ideology and in this role resists to Marxist-Leninist ideology, philosophy of dialectic and historical materialism. The latest developments of modern medical, natural and social sciences, progress of the construction developed socialist about-va in the USSR disprove theoretical and practical provisions of a freydizm.

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