FREUD Siegmund (Freud Sigmund, 1856 — 1939) is the Austrian neuropathologist. psychiatrist and psychologist, founder of psychoanalysis.
Medicine studied in Vienna un-those, and then in Vienna Ying-that physiology where listened to the lectures E. W. Briicke and G. Helmholtz.
Since 1881 the doctor of medicine. In 1885 — 1886 Salpetriyer in Paris at Zh. Sharko trained in clinic. Since 1885 the privatdozent of a course of neurology, and since 1902 professor of the Vienna university.
In 1938 the Nazis occupying Austria seized all property 3. Freud also was publicly burned by his books. It was placed in a ghetto. The international union psychoanalytic about-in, having paid to the fascist authorities the considerable sum as repayment, achieved for 3. Freida of permission to leave to England.
First works 3. Freida were devoted to studying of therapeutic effect of cocaine, a research of aphasia, children's paralysis, ge-mianopsny, and also a pathogeny of hysteria. In 1891 — 1895 together with J. Brener it developed the method of hypnotherapy of hysteria called by authors by method of a catharsis (see Hypnosis, Psychotherapy). For its theoretical justification idea of a pathogenic role of the forced-out experiences was entered. The results of researches on this subject published 3. Freud in the book «Sketches of Hysteria» (1895), joint with Breyer, found further development in the psychoanalytic concept. For the first time the main ideas of psychoanalysis (see) about unconscious and roles of the forced-out sexual experiences were described by 3. Freud in work «Interpretation of dreams» (1900), entered the book «Three Sketches to Introduction to the Theory Sex at and Lygost».
Developed 3. The concept of psychoanalysis quickly found Freud considerable number of supporters. In 1908 the first world congress p with was carried out in Salzburg and x about and the N is scarlet itik, org anizovana
of Boundaries d at on native j i with and x about a 1i and l and t and h e with to about e about-in and its publishing house.
In the next years, especially after World War I in the center of attention 3. Freida there were problems of philosophy and culture. It illegally moved nek-ry lines of individual psychology of the patient with neurosis to the sphere of public life. Works 3. Freida «Totem and taboo. The psychology of primitive culture and religion» (1913), «Mass psychology and the analysis human I» (1921), «Dissatisfaction with culture» (1930), «Moisey and monotheism» (1939), and also some other exerted strong impact on development of a number of the humanities (anthropology, sociology, art criticism, cultural science) both to philosophy in countries of Western Europe and the USA. Methodological basis of works 3. Freida is absolutization of the sphere unconscious (especially sexual inclinations) in an explanation of activity of the person and society. Along with a biologizatorstvo, 3. Freud gave abstract and utopian interpretation of the human person (see Freydizm).
Works: Psychoanalysis and the doctrine about characters, the lane with English, M. — ■ Pg., 1923 (sovm. with other); Collected papers, v. 1 — 4, L.,
1924 — 1925.
Bibliography: Vittels F. Freud,
his personality, the doctrine and school, lane with it., L., 1925; To at r c and I. T. Kritik's N of a freydizm in medicine and physiology, M. — L., 1965; Wells G. K. Pavlov and Freud, lane with English, M., 1959; Jones E. The life and work of Sigmund Freud, v. 1, L., 1953; Schultz J. H. Sigmund Freud, in book: Grosse Nervenarzte, hrsg. v. K. Kolle, S. 99, Stuttgart, 1956.
F. V. Bassinonim